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Math
Statistics
Stats Ch. 1 Notes Review
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Terms in this set (33)
Statistics
a collection of techniques that provide information for decision making
Descriptive statistics
numerical and graphical summaries that describe data
EX: batting average, average GPA of college students
Inferential statistics
techniques that use data collected from a relatively small group to draw conclusions about a larger group
Raw Data
information that has been collected but not processed in any way
Data
raw data that has been cleaned up so it can be analyzed
Individual
the objects, things, entities on which we collect data, also called subjects or units
Population
the set of all the individuals of interest, the larger group we want to draw conclusions on
Sample
a subset of a larger group, individuals for whom we have data
" n "
notation for sample size
Parameter
a numerical summary of the population
Statistic
a numerical summary of a sample taken from the population
Variables
the characteristics we measure on individuals
Quantitative variables
consist of numerical values taken on each individual, represents actual quantities
Categorical variables
consist of group or category names that don't necessarily have any logical ordering
quantitative; categorical
any -------- variables can be turned into -------- variables simply by creating categories
observation
a measurement of a variable for an individual
distribution of a variable
the possible value of the variable and how often each possible value occurs
Explanatory (independent) variables
a variable that may explain or cause differences in another variable
Response (dependent) variables
a variable that depends on another variable or changes in response to a change in another variable
Confounding Variable (lurking variable)
a variable related to the explanatory variable and influence the outcomes of the response variable
observational study
researcher simply observes the individuals or questions them without imposing a condition on them or trying to influence their answers
designed experiment
researcher imposes conditions on the individuals that vary from individual to individual then measures the responses under the imposed conditions
sampling method
the method used to choose which individuals in the population will be included in the sample
simple random sample
when every group of "n" individuals in the population has the same chance of being selected as the sample
convenience sample
the "n" individuals in the population are chosen for the sample based on case of data (whatever is most convenient)
unbiased
a sampling plan that does not systematically favor responses in the sample that tend to be different than the responses from all individuals in the population
biased
a sampling plan that favors or discourages certain types of responses or respondents
selection bias
occurs if the method for selecting the participants produces a sample that does not represent the population of interest
nonresponse bias
occurs when a representative sample is chosen but a subset can't be contacted or does not respond
response bias
occurs when participants respond differently from how they truly feel
sampling error
error that occurs as a result of a sample not being a census
random circumstance
a circumstance in which the outcome is unknown until we observe or measure it
probability
when the "n" trials of a random circumstance are independent and identical then as n increases the relative frequency of an outcome stabilizes at a value that we call its probability
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