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Knowledge originates in experience and science should rely on observation and experimentation.


School of psychology that used introspection to explore structural elements of the human mind.


School of psychology focusing on how our mental and behavioral processes function, allowing humans to survive and flourish.

Experimental Psychology

Study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.


Psychology should be objective in regards to studying behavior with out a connection to the mental processes.

Humanistic Psychology

Emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.

Cognitive Neuroscience

Study of the brain activity linked with cognition


Science of behavior and mental processes.

Nature-Nurture Issue

Controversy over the contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.

Natural Selection

Traits most likely to contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed down from generation to generation.

Levels of Analysis

Differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.

Biopsychosocial approach

Incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.

Biological psychology

Studies links between biological and psychological processes.

Psychodynamic psychology

Studies how the unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat psychological disorders.

Evolutionary psychology

The study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection.

Behavioral psychology

The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.

Cognitive psychology

The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

Social-cultural psychology

The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.


The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits.

Basic research

Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

Developmental psychology

The scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.

Education psychology

The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.

Personality psychology

The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.

Social Psychology

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

Applied research

Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.

Industrial-Organizational (I/O) psychology

The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

Human factors psychology

The study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments.

Counseling psychology

A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.

Clinical psychology

A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.


A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy.

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