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22 terms

PAX Physics: Electricity and Magnetism

terms to be defined; electricity and magnetism
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neutrons
particles that have no charge; neutral
protons
particles that have a positive charge
electrons
particles that have a negative charge
Coulomb's law
like charges repel each other, and unlike charges attract each other; Coulomb found that the electric force between two charges is proportional to the product of the two charges; if one charge is doubled, the electric force is doubled-if both charges are doubled, the electric force increases four times
magnetism
force of attraction; closely related to electricity
magnets
have a north and a south pole, each of which attracts its opposite and repels its similar pole
magnetic fields
exist whenever electric charges are moving
torque
results when the moving charges are in a wire that loops; this effect is the basis for electric motors
generator
a device that converts mechanical energy, such as water coming down a waterfall, into electric energy
electrical potential energy
can be compare to the gravitational force associated with an object's position; because of the force, the object has potential energy
potential difference
is the change in electrical potential energy
transformer
the device that changes the potential difference of electricity
voltage
another term for potential difference; is a measure of the electrical potential energy
voltmeter
is a device that measures the potential difference between two points in an electric current
current
electricity moving through a circuit
ampere
the unit used to measure electrical current
ammeter
a device that measures the current going through any specific point on the circuit
resistor
limits the way by which the ability to flow through a circuit; lowers voltage
series circuit
has all its resistors in a row so that all current must travel through all resistors
parallel circuit
all the resistors are arranged side by side, so that they are all at the same voltage
electrical power
equal to the voltage times the current; formula: power = voltage X current
watts
what power is expressed as; formula: watt = volts X amperes