A&P 2 Lab Practical: Labs 1,2 &4
Does not include the identification of the heart of circulatory structures (lab 3).
The _____ system is ductless and hormones are secreted directly into the blood.
In the endocrine system, the hormones are secreted directly into the _____.
The endocrine system coordinates activity in the body through the release of chemical messengers called _____.
True or False: hormones are carried through the blood to target cells in response to feedback control mechanisms.
Metabolism, growth and reproduction
Hormones are involved in the regulation of what 3 body functions?
The pituitary gland is also known as the _____.
Which gland is also known as the "master gland".
The pituitary gland is stimulated by the _____.
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like projection called the _____.
the pituitary gland has (#) primary lobes and a smaller third lobe.
True or False: there are only 2 lobes in the pituitary gland
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.\
The adenohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.
The neurohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.
The anterior pituitary gland is responsible for the secretion of (#) hormones.
Prolactin, GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH
List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin and ADH
List the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
The posterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.
The anterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.
The third lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.
The thyroid gland has (#) lobes.
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by a band of tissue known as the _____.
The thyroid gland hormones T3 and T4 are produced by _____ cells.
The hormone calcitonin is produced by _____ cells within the thyroid.
T3 and T4
Thyroid hormones _____ regulate body metabolism, growth and development, and are essential for nervous system maturation.
This thyroid hormones helps to regulate blood calcium levels.
These 4 small glands are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
The adrenal glands are located near the _____.
The adrenal glands are also known as the _____.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
The adrenal medulla produces which two hormones.
Adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
The adrenal glands are separated into two parts called _____.
this section of the adrenal gland is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.
This is a section of the adrenal gland responsible for producing more than 30 steroids essential for life.
This steroid is produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes and maintains blood volume and blood pressure by stimulating the kidneys to retain water.
This steroid affects glucose metabolism and maintains blood sugar within the normal range.
This organ functions both as an endocrine and exocrine gland.
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of the _____ which produce the hormones glucagon and insulin.
Glucagon and insulin
Which two hormones are produced by the pancreas.
_____ acts to increase blood sugar concentration.
_____ decreases levels of glucose in the blood.
The _____ gland is located near the back of the diencephalon and is tear shaped.
The pineal gland secretes _____ in response to light.
the secretion of this glands hormones is light dependent and operates through information gain in the eyes.
These gonads produce estrogen and progesterone
These gonads produce testosterone.
Substances that promote urine production are known as _____
This is a condition resulting from the above normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
This is a condition resulting from the below normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
Birth hormone which stimulates the uterine muscles to contract during childbirth.
If fertilization does not occur, the hormone-producing, collapsed ovarian follicle termed the corpus luteum will degenerate into the ______.
Blood is a type of _____ tissue.
True or False: the connective fibers in blood are only present during the clotting process.
The color of blood varies from bright scarlet to dull red depending on _____ levels.
Adults have approximately (#) liters of blood.
True or False: there are over 100 different substances suspended in blood including gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, antibodies, chemicals and ions.
The formation of blood is known as _____.
Spleen, liver and lymph nodes
`Hemopoiesis occurs in the __________ of a fetus.
After birth, hemopoiesis occurs in the _____ marrow of specific bones.
False (red only)
True or False: at birth an individual has both red and yellow bone marrow.
At birth, the red marrow of the long bones in an individual will turn yellow due to an accumulation of _____.
Flat bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvic bones
List the 5 places where red marrow is found in adults.
Plasma / formed elements
When a tube of whole blood is spun in a centrifuge the blood will separate in to _____ and ______.
_____ is the fluid component of blood.
Blood cells are found in the _______ of blood.
the percentage of RBCs in whole blood is known as _____.
Red blood cells are also known as _____.
White Blood cells are also known as _____.
Platelets are also known as _____.
True or False: the average hematocrit for a male adult is 45%.
Erythrocytes and thrombocytes
These two types of blood cells perform their functions in the blood.
This type of blood cell performs its functions in the connective tissue.
The characteristic biconcave appearance of the RBC is due to the lack of a _____.
True or False: the biconcave appearance of RBCs allows for a greater surface area for binding oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of respiration.
False (cells are anucleate, do not reproduce and have a limited life span)
True or False: RBCs reproduce through mitosis.
RBCs have a life span of ___ to ____ days.
Which organ destroys red blood cells?
This is the most prevalent type of blood cell.
True or False: Erythrocytes are relatively uniform in size.
A pathology referring to the decrease in RBCs
True or False: Anemia reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
An increase in the number of RBCs being produces is known as _____.
this disorder may be the result of cancer or prolonged exposure to high altitudes.
In this disease, RBCs may appear lighter and may be nucleated indicating an immaturity of the cells.
small irregular shaped cell fragments that promote clotting when a blood vessel has been damaged.
True or False: Once bleeding has stopped and healing has begun, platelets contribute to dissolving the clot.
these function as a defense system against pathogens or the presence of foreign material in the body.
True or False: Leukocytes are anucleated and have the ability to move in and out of blood vessels.
True or false: leukocytes are fewer in number than erythrocytes and more varied in size.
Granulocytes or Agranulocytes
List the 2 classifications of a leukocyte.
Leukocytes with no observable granules in the cytoplasm
leukocytes with conspicuous granules in the cytoplasm.
Monocytes and lymphocytes
list the two types of agranulocytes.
these are the largest of the leukocytes and are nearly twice the size of erythrocytes.
Monocytes compose _____ percent of the leukocyte population.
These typically contain a kidney shaped nucleus surrounded by a large amount of cytoplasm.
These serve as long-term active phagocytes which increase dramatically during chronic infections.
True or False: lymphocytes are approximately the same size as RBCs.
The nucleus of this agranulocyte stains dark blue to purple and makes up most of the cell.
B or T
Lymphocytes are classified as ___ lymphocytes or ____ lymphocytes.
This agranulocyte presents with a very thin pale halo of cytoplasm around the nucleus.
this type of WBC has lobed nuclei that consist of expanded nuclear regions connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.
Neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils
List the 3 types of granulocytes.
The most numerous of the leukocytes.
These granulocytes have a multi-lobed nucleus consisting of 3-7 lobes.
True or False: neutrophils are phagocytes that increase exponentially during acute infections.
This is a neutral loving granulocyte.
True or False: the granules in neutrophils stain so lightly they are generally indistinguishable.
These are the granulocytes which are fewest in number.
neutrophils makeup ______ percent of WBCs
Basophils makeup _____ percent of WBCs
These granulocytes have a large u or s shaped nucleus with two or more indentations that usually cannot be observed because the coarse granules stain so darkly.
Basophil granules contain a vasodilator called ______which is discharged when antigens are exposed to inflammation.
Basophils contain an anticoagulant known as _____.
The clumping together of RBCs is known as _____.
Pigment excreted in the bile is called _____.
The red pigment responsible for the color of blood is _____.
An abnormal condition in which there is an overproduction of white blood cells.
Hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells is known as ____.
The stoppage of bleeding from damaged blood vessels.
Blood platelet involved in the formation of a blood clot.
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils
List the white blood cells in order of abundance.
Blood typing is based on the presence of specific _____ on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane.
The glycoproteins which are present on the RBC membrane are known as _____ .
True or False: antigens are genetically determined.
In many cases antigens are accompanied by plasma proteins called _____ that react with RBCs having different antigens causing them to clump and eventually hemolyze.
False (only those with compatible blood)
True or False: most people can receive blood from any donor.
This blood type is known as the universal donor.
This blood type is known as the universal acceptor
True or False: a person with type A blood has antibodies for type B blood, thus they can only accept blood from a Type O or Type A donor.
This is an additional antigen which determines whether a person has a positive or negative blood type.
_____ always carry blood away from the heart
_____ always carry blood toward the heart.
The _____ is equivalent to one complete heartbeat.
_____ is a measure of ventricular contraction and relaxation.
Closed / open
When the heart is at complete relaxation the semilunar valves are _____ and the atrioventricular valves are _____.
The heart at work is known as _____ (when the ventricles contract)
The heart at rest is known as _____.
120 mm Hg
Normal systolic pressure is _____
The average heart rate is _____ bpm.
.8 of a second
The average cardiac cycle length is ______.
The first .1 second of a cardiac cycle is _____
______ takes up about .3 second of a cardiac cycle.
The last .4 seconds of a cardiac cycle is _____
The last phase
Which phase of the cardiac cycle gets cut short when the heart rate increases?
AV valves at the beginning of systole
The first sound of a heartbeat (Lubb) is associated with the closing of the _________.
Semilunar valves closing at the end of systole
The second sound of a heartbeat (dub) occurs with the _____________.
The alternating surge of pressure in an artery that occurs with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
The number of beats per minute.
Common carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, dorsal pedis artery
List places a pulse may be palpated.
The pressure the blood exerts against the arterial walls is known as _____.
true or False: because the heart contracts and relaxes, the resulting rhythmic flow of blood into the arteries causes the blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat.
Blood pressure reading taken at the peak of the ventricular contraction.
Blood pressure reading taken during ventricular relaxation.
A blood pressure cuff is also known as a _____.
False (it usually varies considerably)
True or false: Normal blood pressure is generally consistent from person to person.
______ sounds indicate the resumption of blood flow into the forearm.
The pressure at which the soft tapping sounds can first be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
The point at which the korotkoff sounds can no longer be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
True or False: the diastolic pressure occurs when the artery is no longer compressed and the blood flows freely once more.
160 mm hg
When you first inflate the blood pressure cuff you will want to go higher than normal systolic pressure is assumed to be, this number is commonly ______.
_____ is calculated by subtracting diastolic pressure from systolic pressure.
(#) is an average pulse pressure.
Heart contractions are the result of a series of electrical potential charges or _____ waves that travel through the heart before each beat.
A ____ is a record of the electrical impulses that travel through the heart before each beat.
At total blockage (#) impulses are transmitted through the av node and the atria and ventricles beat independently of one another.
A heart rate more than 100 bpm is known as _____
A heart rate less than 60 bpm is known as _____
True or False: prolonged tachycardia may progress to fibrillation, a which makes the heart ineffective as a pump.
A condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions which begins as tachycardia.
this is the small wave which indicated depolarization of the atria immediately before contraction.
The _____ is a result of ventricular depolarization.
This wave results from currents propagated during ventricular repolarization.
Measuring the distance from the peak of one QRS complex to the next and dividing it by .04 seconds gets you the length of one ______.
if you are looking at someone who is having a massive hemorrhage you may notice a change or paling of their _____.
Blood pressure above normal
Blood pressure below normal
True or False: The QRS complex is ventricular depolarization
On an ECG we don't see atrial repolarization because it is obscured by the _______.
This vessel is the most commonly used when taking a blood pressure reading.
Posterior Tibial artery
Which pulse pressure can be taken by palpating behind the medial malleolus.