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The endocrine system coordinates activity in the body through the release of chemical messengers called _____.
True or False: hormones are carried through the blood to target cells in response to feedback control mechanisms.
Metabolism, growth and reproduction
Hormones are involved in the regulation of what 3 body functions?
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like projection called the _____.
T3 and T4
Thyroid hormones _____ regulate body metabolism, growth and development, and are essential for nervous system maturation.
this section of the adrenal gland is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.
This is a section of the adrenal gland responsible for producing more than 30 steroids essential for life.
This steroid is produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes and maintains blood volume and blood pressure by stimulating the kidneys to retain water.
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of the _____ which produce the hormones glucagon and insulin.
the secretion of this glands hormones is light dependent and operates through information gain in the eyes.
If fertilization does not occur, the hormone-producing, collapsed ovarian follicle termed the corpus luteum will degenerate into the ______.
True or False: there are over 100 different substances suspended in blood including gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, antibodies, chemicals and ions.
At birth, the red marrow of the long bones in an individual will turn yellow due to an accumulation of _____.
Flat bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvic bones
List the 5 places where red marrow is found in adults.
Plasma / formed elements
When a tube of whole blood is spun in a centrifuge the blood will separate in to _____ and ______.
True or False: the biconcave appearance of RBCs allows for a greater surface area for binding oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of respiration.
False (cells are anucleate, do not reproduce and have a limited life span)
True or False: RBCs reproduce through mitosis.
In this disease, RBCs may appear lighter and may be nucleated indicating an immaturity of the cells.
small irregular shaped cell fragments that promote clotting when a blood vessel has been damaged.
True or False: Once bleeding has stopped and healing has begun, platelets contribute to dissolving the clot.
these function as a defense system against pathogens or the presence of foreign material in the body.
True or False: Leukocytes are anucleated and have the ability to move in and out of blood vessels.
These typically contain a kidney shaped nucleus surrounded by a large amount of cytoplasm.
These serve as long-term active phagocytes which increase dramatically during chronic infections.
The nucleus of this agranulocyte stains dark blue to purple and makes up most of the cell.
this type of WBC has lobed nuclei that consist of expanded nuclear regions connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.
True or False: the granules in neutrophils stain so lightly they are generally indistinguishable.
These granulocytes have a large u or s shaped nucleus with two or more indentations that usually cannot be observed because the coarse granules stain so darkly.
Basophil granules contain a vasodilator called ______which is discharged when antigens are exposed to inflammation.
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils
List the white blood cells in order of abundance.
Blood typing is based on the presence of specific _____ on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane.
In many cases antigens are accompanied by plasma proteins called _____ that react with RBCs having different antigens causing them to clump and eventually hemolyze.
False (only those with compatible blood)
True or False: most people can receive blood from any donor.
True or False: a person with type A blood has antibodies for type B blood, thus they can only accept blood from a Type O or Type A donor.
This is an additional antigen which determines whether a person has a positive or negative blood type.
Closed / open
When the heart is at complete relaxation the semilunar valves are _____ and the atrioventricular valves are _____.
AV valves at the beginning of systole
The first sound of a heartbeat (Lubb) is associated with the closing of the _________.
Semilunar valves closing at the end of systole
The second sound of a heartbeat (dub) occurs with the _____________.
The alternating surge of pressure in an artery that occurs with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
Common carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, dorsal pedis artery
List places a pulse may be palpated.
true or False: because the heart contracts and relaxes, the resulting rhythmic flow of blood into the arteries causes the blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat.
False (it usually varies considerably)
True or false: Normal blood pressure is generally consistent from person to person.
The pressure at which the soft tapping sounds can first be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
The point at which the korotkoff sounds can no longer be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
True or False: the diastolic pressure occurs when the artery is no longer compressed and the blood flows freely once more.
160 mm hg
When you first inflate the blood pressure cuff you will want to go higher than normal systolic pressure is assumed to be, this number is commonly ______.
Heart contractions are the result of a series of electrical potential charges or _____ waves that travel through the heart before each beat.
A ____ is a record of the electrical impulses that travel through the heart before each beat.
At total blockage (#) impulses are transmitted through the av node and the atria and ventricles beat independently of one another.
True or False: prolonged tachycardia may progress to fibrillation, a which makes the heart ineffective as a pump.
this is the small wave which indicated depolarization of the atria immediately before contraction.
Measuring the distance from the peak of one QRS complex to the next and dividing it by .04 seconds gets you the length of one ______.
if you are looking at someone who is having a massive hemorrhage you may notice a change or paling of their _____.
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