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182 terms

A&P 2 Lab Practical: Labs 1,2 &4

Does not include the identification of the heart of circulatory structures (lab 3).
STUDY
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Endocrine
The _____ system is ductless and hormones are secreted directly into the blood.
Blood
In the endocrine system, the hormones are secreted directly into the _____.
Hormones
The endocrine system coordinates activity in the body through the release of chemical messengers called _____.
True
True or False: hormones are carried through the blood to target cells in response to feedback control mechanisms.
Metabolism, growth and reproduction
Hormones are involved in the regulation of what 3 body functions?
Hypophysis
The pituitary gland is also known as the _____.
Pituitary (hypophysis)
Which gland is also known as the "master gland".
Hypothalamus
The pituitary gland is stimulated by the _____.
Infundibulum
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk-like projection called the _____.
2
the pituitary gland has (#) primary lobes and a smaller third lobe.
False (3)
True or False: there are only 2 lobes in the pituitary gland
Adenohypophysis
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.
Neurohypophysis
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.\
Glandular
The adenohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.
Nervous
The neurohypophysis is composed of _____ tissue.
6
The anterior pituitary gland is responsible for the secretion of (#) hormones.
Prolactin, GH, FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH
List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin and ADH
List the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.
Nervous impulse
The posterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.
Hormones
The anterior pituitary gland is activated by the hypothalamus through _____.
Pars
The third lobe of the pituitary gland is known as the _____.
2
The thyroid gland has (#) lobes.
Isthmus
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by a band of tissue known as the _____.
Follicular
The thyroid gland hormones T3 and T4 are produced by _____ cells.
Parafollicular
The hormone calcitonin is produced by _____ cells within the thyroid.
T3 and T4
Thyroid hormones _____ regulate body metabolism, growth and development, and are essential for nervous system maturation.
Calcitonin
This thyroid hormones helps to regulate blood calcium levels.
Parathyroid gland
These 4 small glands are located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland.
Kidneys
The adrenal glands are located near the _____.
Suprarenal
The adrenal glands are also known as the _____.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
The adrenal medulla produces which two hormones.
Adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
The adrenal glands are separated into two parts called _____.
Adrenal medulla
this section of the adrenal gland is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.
Adrenal cortex
This is a section of the adrenal gland responsible for producing more than 30 steroids essential for life.
Aldosterone
This steroid is produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates the concentration of mineral electrolytes and maintains blood volume and blood pressure by stimulating the kidneys to retain water.
Cortisol
This steroid affects glucose metabolism and maintains blood sugar within the normal range.
Pancreas
This organ functions both as an endocrine and exocrine gland.
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)
The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of the _____ which produce the hormones glucagon and insulin.
Glucagon and insulin
Which two hormones are produced by the pancreas.
Glucagon
_____ acts to increase blood sugar concentration.
Insulin
_____ decreases levels of glucose in the blood.
Pineal
The _____ gland is located near the back of the diencephalon and is tear shaped.
Melatonin
The pineal gland secretes _____ in response to light.
Pineal
the secretion of this glands hormones is light dependent and operates through information gain in the eyes.
Ovaries
These gonads produce estrogen and progesterone
Testes
These gonads produce testosterone.
Diuretics
Substances that promote urine production are known as _____
Hyperthyroidism
This is a condition resulting from the above normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
Hypothyroidism
This is a condition resulting from the below normal secretion of thyroid hormone.
Oxytocin
Birth hormone which stimulates the uterine muscles to contract during childbirth.
Corpus Albicans
If fertilization does not occur, the hormone-producing, collapsed ovarian follicle termed the corpus luteum will degenerate into the ______.
Connective
Blood is a type of _____ tissue.
True
True or False: the connective fibers in blood are only present during the clotting process.
Oxygen
The color of blood varies from bright scarlet to dull red depending on _____ levels.
5
Adults have approximately (#) liters of blood.
True
True or False: there are over 100 different substances suspended in blood including gases, nutrients, waste products, hormones, antibodies, chemicals and ions.
Hemopoiesis
The formation of blood is known as _____.
Spleen, liver and lymph nodes
`Hemopoiesis occurs in the __________ of a fetus.
Red
After birth, hemopoiesis occurs in the _____ marrow of specific bones.
False (red only)
True or False: at birth an individual has both red and yellow bone marrow.
Fat
At birth, the red marrow of the long bones in an individual will turn yellow due to an accumulation of _____.
Flat bones of the skull, sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvic bones
List the 5 places where red marrow is found in adults.
Plasma / formed elements
When a tube of whole blood is spun in a centrifuge the blood will separate in to _____ and ______.
Plasma
_____ is the fluid component of blood.
Formed elements
Blood cells are found in the _______ of blood.
Hematocrit
the percentage of RBCs in whole blood is known as _____.
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells are also known as _____.
Leukocytes
White Blood cells are also known as _____.
Thrombocytes
Platelets are also known as _____.
True
True or False: the average hematocrit for a male adult is 45%.
Erythrocytes and thrombocytes
These two types of blood cells perform their functions in the blood.
Leukocytes
This type of blood cell performs its functions in the connective tissue.
Nucleus
The characteristic biconcave appearance of the RBC is due to the lack of a _____.
True
True or False: the biconcave appearance of RBCs allows for a greater surface area for binding oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of respiration.
False (cells are anucleate, do not reproduce and have a limited life span)
True or False: RBCs reproduce through mitosis.
100-120
RBCs have a life span of ___ to ____ days.
Spleen
Which organ destroys red blood cells?
Erythrocyte
This is the most prevalent type of blood cell.
True
True or False: Erythrocytes are relatively uniform in size.
Anemia
A pathology referring to the decrease in RBCs
True
True or False: Anemia reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
Polycythemia
An increase in the number of RBCs being produces is known as _____.
Polycythemia
this disorder may be the result of cancer or prolonged exposure to high altitudes.
Polycythemia
In this disease, RBCs may appear lighter and may be nucleated indicating an immaturity of the cells.
Thrombocytes
small irregular shaped cell fragments that promote clotting when a blood vessel has been damaged.
True
True or False: Once bleeding has stopped and healing has begun, platelets contribute to dissolving the clot.
Leukocytes
these function as a defense system against pathogens or the presence of foreign material in the body.
False (nucleated)
True or False: Leukocytes are anucleated and have the ability to move in and out of blood vessels.
True
True or false: leukocytes are fewer in number than erythrocytes and more varied in size.
Granulocytes or Agranulocytes
List the 2 classifications of a leukocyte.
Agranulocytes
Leukocytes with no observable granules in the cytoplasm
Granulocytes
leukocytes with conspicuous granules in the cytoplasm.
Monocytes and lymphocytes
list the two types of agranulocytes.
Monocytes
these are the largest of the leukocytes and are nearly twice the size of erythrocytes.
4-8
Monocytes compose _____ percent of the leukocyte population.
Monocytes
These typically contain a kidney shaped nucleus surrounded by a large amount of cytoplasm.
Monocytes
These serve as long-term active phagocytes which increase dramatically during chronic infections.
True
True or False: lymphocytes are approximately the same size as RBCs.
Lymphocytes
The nucleus of this agranulocyte stains dark blue to purple and makes up most of the cell.
B or T
Lymphocytes are classified as ___ lymphocytes or ____ lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes
This agranulocyte presents with a very thin pale halo of cytoplasm around the nucleus.
Granulocytes
this type of WBC has lobed nuclei that consist of expanded nuclear regions connected by thin strands of nucleoplasm.
Neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils
List the 3 types of granulocytes.
Neutrophil
The most numerous of the leukocytes.
Neutrophil
These granulocytes have a multi-lobed nucleus consisting of 3-7 lobes.
True
True or False: neutrophils are phagocytes that increase exponentially during acute infections.
Neutrophils
This is a neutral loving granulocyte.
True
True or False: the granules in neutrophils stain so lightly they are generally indistinguishable.
Basophils
These are the granulocytes which are fewest in number.
40-70
neutrophils makeup ______ percent of WBCs
1
Basophils makeup _____ percent of WBCs
Basophils
These granulocytes have a large u or s shaped nucleus with two or more indentations that usually cannot be observed because the coarse granules stain so darkly.
Histamine
Basophil granules contain a vasodilator called ______which is discharged when antigens are exposed to inflammation.
Heparin
Basophils contain an anticoagulant known as _____.
Agglutination
The clumping together of RBCs is known as _____.
Bilirubin
Pigment excreted in the bile is called _____.
Hemoglobin
The red pigment responsible for the color of blood is _____.
Leukocytosis
An abnormal condition in which there is an overproduction of white blood cells.
Erythropoietin
Hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells is known as ____.
Hemostasis
The stoppage of bleeding from damaged blood vessels.
Thrombocyte
Blood platelet involved in the formation of a blood clot.
Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils
List the white blood cells in order of abundance.
Glycoproteins
Blood typing is based on the presence of specific _____ on the outer surface of the RBC plasma membrane.
Antigens
The glycoproteins which are present on the RBC membrane are known as _____ .
True
True or False: antigens are genetically determined.
Antibodies
In many cases antigens are accompanied by plasma proteins called _____ that react with RBCs having different antigens causing them to clump and eventually hemolyze.
False (only those with compatible blood)
True or False: most people can receive blood from any donor.
Type O
This blood type is known as the universal donor.
Type AB
This blood type is known as the universal acceptor
True
True or False: a person with type A blood has antibodies for type B blood, thus they can only accept blood from a Type O or Type A donor.
Rh
This is an additional antigen which determines whether a person has a positive or negative blood type.
Arteries
_____ always carry blood away from the heart
Veins
_____ always carry blood toward the heart.
Cardiac cycle
The _____ is equivalent to one complete heartbeat.
Blood pressure
_____ is a measure of ventricular contraction and relaxation.
Closed / open
When the heart is at complete relaxation the semilunar valves are _____ and the atrioventricular valves are _____.
Systole
The heart at work is known as _____ (when the ventricles contract)
Diastole
The heart at rest is known as _____.
120 mm Hg
Normal systolic pressure is _____
70
The average heart rate is _____ bpm.
.8 of a second
The average cardiac cycle length is ______.
Atrial contraction
The first .1 second of a cardiac cycle is _____
Ventricular contraction
______ takes up about .3 second of a cardiac cycle.
Ventricular relaxation
The last .4 seconds of a cardiac cycle is _____
The last phase
Which phase of the cardiac cycle gets cut short when the heart rate increases?
AV valves at the beginning of systole
The first sound of a heartbeat (Lubb) is associated with the closing of the _________.
Semilunar valves closing at the end of systole
The second sound of a heartbeat (dub) occurs with the _____________.
Pulse
The alternating surge of pressure in an artery that occurs with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
Pulse rate
The number of beats per minute.
Common carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, dorsal pedis artery
List places a pulse may be palpated.
Blood pressure
The pressure the blood exerts against the arterial walls is known as _____.
True
true or False: because the heart contracts and relaxes, the resulting rhythmic flow of blood into the arteries causes the blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat.
Systolic pressure
Blood pressure reading taken at the peak of the ventricular contraction.
Diastolic pressure
Blood pressure reading taken during ventricular relaxation.
Sphygmomanometer
A blood pressure cuff is also known as a _____.
False (it usually varies considerably)
True or false: Normal blood pressure is generally consistent from person to person.
Korotkoff
______ sounds indicate the resumption of blood flow into the forearm.
Systolic
The pressure at which the soft tapping sounds can first be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
Diastolic
The point at which the korotkoff sounds can no longer be detected is recorded as the _____ pressure.
True
True or False: the diastolic pressure occurs when the artery is no longer compressed and the blood flows freely once more.
160 mm hg
When you first inflate the blood pressure cuff you will want to go higher than normal systolic pressure is assumed to be, this number is commonly ______.
Pulse Pressure
_____ is calculated by subtracting diastolic pressure from systolic pressure.
40
(#) is an average pulse pressure.
Depolarization
Heart contractions are the result of a series of electrical potential charges or _____ waves that travel through the heart before each beat.
ECG (electrocardiogram)
A ____ is a record of the electrical impulses that travel through the heart before each beat.
0
At total blockage (#) impulses are transmitted through the av node and the atria and ventricles beat independently of one another.
Tachycardia
A heart rate more than 100 bpm is known as _____
Bradycardia
A heart rate less than 60 bpm is known as _____
True
True or False: prolonged tachycardia may progress to fibrillation, a which makes the heart ineffective as a pump.
Fibrillation
A condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions which begins as tachycardia.
P wave
this is the small wave which indicated depolarization of the atria immediately before contraction.
QRS Complex
The _____ is a result of ventricular depolarization.
T wave
This wave results from currents propagated during ventricular repolarization.
Cardiac cycle
Measuring the distance from the peak of one QRS complex to the next and dividing it by .04 seconds gets you the length of one ______.
Skin color
if you are looking at someone who is having a massive hemorrhage you may notice a change or paling of their _____.
Hypertension
Blood pressure above normal
Hypotension
Blood pressure below normal
Auscultate
Listen
True
True or False: The QRS complex is ventricular depolarization
QRS complex
On an ECG we don't see atrial repolarization because it is obscured by the _______.
Brachial artery
This vessel is the most commonly used when taking a blood pressure reading.
Posterior Tibial artery
Which pulse pressure can be taken by palpating behind the medial malleolus.