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a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge, found in the nucleus of an atom
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscript to the left of the elemental symbol
one of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass
an isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off delectable particles and energy
energy level, electron shell
the different states of potential energy for electrons in an atom/an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
the outermost energy shell of an atom. containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells
a type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds
a type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms
double covalent bond
a type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons; symbolized by a pair of lines between the bonded atoms
the bonding capacity of an atom generally equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the atom's outermost shell
nonpolar covalent bond
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
polar covalent bond
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
van der Waals interaction
weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about localized charge flactuations
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