CIA Second Term Practical
CIA Greystone, Chef Rebecca
Terms in this set (324)
Describe in your own words, five occasions, which warrant hand washing in the kitchen
Drinking or smoking
Before and after putting on gloves
After touching your face or hair
After handling money
After using the restroom
When changing from one product to another
After sneezing or coughing
After handling raw protein
Support the logic of using a tasting spoon instead of your fingers, and how spoons should be stored at the workstation
Single use, disposable tasting spoons should be used to taste food in order to reduce the risk that the food will be contaminated by dirty fingers, Tasting spoons should be readily available on the station
Describe the procedure for sharpening a knife
Wet the stone and make sure there is adequate water on its surface; place the knife perpendicular to the stone with the tip touching the stone at one end; draw the blade across the stone in a diagonal motion with the blade firmly touching the stone at a constant angle of approximately 18-20 degrees. Repeat this motion 5-6 times, then perform the same on the opposite edge of the blade. Proceed through grain of stone from lowest to highest. Finish by steeling the blade and checking the edge for sharpness
What is the purpose of steeling a knife and how often should it be done?
Steeling straightens the edge and restores the burr to the blade. How often it should be done depends on how much the knife is being used, but if the knife is in frequent use it is appropriate to steel it several times per day and after each wash
Describe two reasons for precise vegetable cuts
presentation & even cooking
When and how would a bouquet garni or sachet be used
Bouquet garni and sachet are used to flavor stock, soup and sauces. Once assembled they are placed in the liquid until the desired flavor is achieved and then they are removed
What are the advantages of using a bouquet garni or sachet
They are easily removed, allowing for more control over flavor
chopping into small pieces, smaller than bruniose, but without square cuts
1 sprig of thyme, 3-4 parsley stems, 1 bay leaf, 2-3 leak leaves and/or 1 celery stalk, cut crossways in half, the latter pieces used to wrap the former, then tied
tomato that has been blanched only enough to remove the skin, then seeded and cut either into bruniose or small dice, depending on the application
a square cut, ⅛"x⅛"x⅛"
a square cut ¼"x¼"x¼"
a square cut ½"x½"x½"
a square cut ¾"x¾"x¾"
an oblong cut ⅛"x⅛"x2
oblong cut ¼"x¼"x2
an oblong cut ½"x½"x2
1/2 X 1/2 X 1/8
"bag of spices"
Aromatics encased in cheesecloth that are used in flavor liquids.
Standard - 3-4 parsley stems, 1 crushed clove of garlic, 1 tsp cracked black pepper, 1 bay leaf
an onions studded with several whole cloves and a bay leaf, used to flavor bechamel and some soups
Name the three basic types of stock
White stocks (bones and mirepoix combined in cool liquid and simmered), brown stocks (bones and mirepoix browned and added separately) and fumets (main ingredients smothered/sweated before simmering, often with white wine)
What are the major uses of stocks?
They are used to prepare soups, sauces and as braising or simmering liquid for vegetables and grains
What is the standard ratio to yield one gallon of white or brown stock
8 lbs bones, 1 lb mirepoix (regular or white), 1 sachet de epices and 1G 64oz
Why do we cut mirepoix into 1-2" pieces for stock production
Because that is the proper size to extract the flavor and it is large enough to not breakdown too much and cloud stock, when added to the stock two hours prior to finishing it
what point of the cooking process is mirepoix added to meat stocks
two fundamentals should be used in order to ensure a stock is clear
Skim it frequently and don't ever let it boil
What are the characteristics of a well made stock
It should be evaluated on the basis of flavor, color, aroma and clarity. If made correctly it will be clear, full bodied and the flavor will be well balanced, with the major flavoring ingredient predominant and the aromatics unobtrusive.
temperature are stocks cooled to before refrigerating
In order to achieve the desired flavor, body and color in stocks, list the minimum simmer times of each
White beef stock: 8-10 hours; white and brown veal and game stocks: 6-8 hours; white poultry and game bird stock: 3-4 hours; fish stock and fumet: 45 min-1 hour; vegetable stock: 45 min-1 hour, depending on ingredients and size of cuts
What is remouillage and how does it differ from a stock
"Rewetting," or when bones and mirepoix are simmered with water a second time, producing a more diluted stock (one that is often used in stock making)
Define protein extraction and coagulation as it applies to the making of stocks.
The goal of making stock is to extract protein in the form of collagen and amino acids from bones, cartilage and meat and to remove the coagulated soluble cell proteins which float to the surface. This is why bones are blanched for white stock and why all stocks are skimmed to remove the scum, made up of coagulated proteins, which if allowed to remain could cloud the stock and potentially give it a sour flavor. The process of extracting protein is done gently and over a long period of time to get the bound up collagen molecules to unwind into the form of gelatin. extraction happens at a lower temperature than coagulation, so the process begins with protein extraction, followed by protein coagulation, then collagen extraction. Skimming is important to ensure that the coagulated proteins are dissolved back into the stock over the period of time it takes to extract the collagen.
What is the purpose of blanching bones when making white stocks
To remove blood and other impurities that will cloud or discolor the stock
Name and describe the two main categories of soups
Clear, made from broth or consomme and thick, including cream soups, chowders, puree or bisque
Define a clear soup
A clear soup is one made from broth or consomme with garnish
Explain the difference between a Clear Broth and a Hearty Broth.
Hearty broths are based on clear broths or stocks and have more flavor, texture and body than clear broths. Basic ratio for a hearty broth: 4 lb one or more main flavoring ingredient per 1.25 gallons stock or broth
What are the characteristics of a well-prepared, quality clear soup?
A clear, flavorful liquid with some body. Clear, golden in color, rich tasting and aromatic with a good flavor and noticeable body, often with a few droplets of fat on the surface (not all)
Describe the procedure for a glace de viande. What are its uses?
Glace de viande is a brown veal or beef stock or remouillage reduced to the point that it has a jelly-like or syrupy consistency. It is used to boost the flavor of other foods, especially sauces, but may be combined with water to serve as a sauce base in much the same way a commercial base would be
What concentrates during the production of glace that gives it its body and viscosity
The collagen extracted from the bones and connective tissues gets converted into gelatin and provides body and viscosity
Describe the method for clarified butter
There are two methods: Simmering and Decanting. Simmering: bring whole butter to a simmer,
skim foam off surface, simmer until butter turns clear (the water will
evaporate and milk solids drop to the bottom), when milk solids just
barely change color strain through cheese cloth. Decanting: place
whole butter over double boiler, heat enough so that its water and
milk solids fall to the bottom, skim foam, carefully decant the
butterfat, leaving the milk solids and water behind.
What is the purpose of clarifying butter
The purpose of clarifying butter is to remove its milk solids and water. This increases its smoke point and extends its shelf life.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using commercial stock bases
Advantages: can be less expensive, meaty bones and trim may not be readily available, a kitchen may not have the space or manpower to prepare and hold stocks, can be used as a quick boost of flavor in soups, stocks and sauces. Disadvantages: bases can be high
in sodium, can lack the depth of flavor achieved through making stock from scratch, no gelatin content, less nutritious
Describe the ingredients used in a hearty broth
hearty broths are based on clear broths or stock. Ingredients used can be vegetables, meats, grains, pasta, etc. All ingredients are meant to be served in the soup so must be cut in uniform shapes and sizes and their flavors/aromatic qualities appropriately matched to the soup
What is the basic formula for onion soup
5 lb thinly sliced onions, 2 oz clarified or whole butter, 4 oz Calvados or sherry, 5-6
qts chicken or white beef stock, 1 sachet d'Epices, salt and ground black pepper.
Describe two reasons why it is important to properly caramelize the onions for French Onion Soup
it will develop a richer flavor and deeper color in the finished broth
What are the steps and food safety concerns when re-heating hearty broths for service
All leftovers must be cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees
Define a consommé'
a perfectly clear broth
What is a clarification, and when does a clarification begin to be referred to as a raft
combo of lean ground meat, salt, egg whites, mirepoix, herbs and spices, and tomato or other acidic ingredients; all very finely diced, well mixed and cold, with the clarification is a combination acidic ingredients being added at the last minute. A raft begins to form at 120-125 degrees and floats on top of the consomme. As the broth simmers the impurities get caught in the raft at the same time the raft ingredients are imparting flavor to the broth.
main purpose of an onion brûlé in consommé
To enhance the flavor and color of the broth
Describe protein coagulation as it relates to the making of a consommé
the salt denatures the protein in the egg whites and ground meat, opening the molecules up. As the temperature of the raft reaches 120-125 degrees and higher, the protein molecules form back together in a large mass trapping all of the impurities within it, creating a crystal clear broth
basic formula for 1 gallon of finished consommé
1 lb mirepoix; 3 lb lean ground meat, poultry or fish; 10 egg whites; acid (tomatoes or lemon juice), 5 qts stock or broth, salt and pepper, sachet d'epices or bouquet garni, onion brulee
the purpose of an acid in the clarification of a consommé
It helps the raft form properly and adds flavor
the guidelines for choosing a garnish for consommé'
no matter what the garnish may be, it must be as well prepared as the consommé. The vegetables must be cut neat and precise and all other seasonings and additions chosen to enhance the flavor of the consommé, not detract from it
the characteristics of a well-made consommé
Well-balanced, rich flavor reflecting the major ingredient, a discernible body, perfectly clear, completely fat free and aromatic
Describe the formula and method for reclarifying a cloudy consommé'
combine 1 gal cold consommé with no more than 4 beaten egg whites, a small amount of mirepoix and ½ floz tomato puree or lemon juice. Bring the consommé slowly to a boil, simmer for 5-10 minutes until it is clear again. Strain through cheese cloth. As the egg whites coagulate, the impurities will be trapped. However, this tends to remove flavor along with the impurities. To control this, aromatics can be added to the reclarification
appropriate garnish for a consommé'
The vegetables, if using, must be cut neat and precise and all other seasonings and
additions chosen to enhance the flavor of the consommé, not detract from it.
What happens to the thickening power of roux the more it is cooked
Its thickening power diminishes
the benefits and liabilities of thickening with roux
The length of time roux is cooked affects its color, flavor and aroma, which will change the appearance and taste of a dish, wanted or unwanted. Roux is also a very stable thickener that freezes and reheats very well. Potential negatives: roux must be cooked before it can be used and tends to create a heavier sauce
the benefits and liabilities of thickening with a pure starch
Pure starches have greater thickening power, ounce for ounce, than flour and do not require an extended simmering time like roux. They also lend much less or no color at all to a final dish. Negatives: they break down more quickly over time than roux and often don't reheat well
What is a slurry, and describe in detail how is it used
A pure starch (like arrowroot, cornstarch, potato starch) dispersed in cold liquid (should have a consistency like that of heavy cream). Pour or ladle the slurry into simmering liquid while stirring constantly. The liquid will quickly thicken. When using cornstarch slurry, do not bring to a boil
Describe, in detail, starch gelatinization:
the process where the intermolecular bonds of the starch molecule are broken down using water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites to engage more water, thus thickening liquids, maximizing the capacity to absorb liquid. This occurs with roux at approximately 170 degrees
What is a liaison? When and how is it used
A mixture of egg yolks and cream used to enrich and slightly thicken sauces and soups
as well as add sheen, smoothness, body, flavor and a light golden color. A liaison must be tempered before being added into the hot liquid by incorporating a small amount of hot liquid into egg yolk picture to slowly bring it up to temp. The liaison should be added as close to service as possible and the temperature should not exceed 185 degrees, as the egg yolks will curdle
What is a beurre manié? When and how is it used
Beurre Manie is a dough, consisting of equal parts of soft butter and flour, used to thicken soups and sauces. By kneading the flour and butter together, the flour particles are coated in butter. When the beurre manié is whisked into a hot or warm liquid, the butter melts, releasing the flour particles without creating lumps. Beurre manie is also used as a finishing step for sauces, imparting a smooth, shiny texture prior to service
What affect does freezing and thawing have on a pure starch-thickened sauce
One specific requirement which is problematic with cornstarch is freezing. A cornstarch-thickened sauce which is frozen and thawed will tend to "weep" liquid, a profound shortcoming in this application
What is the formula for making a vegetable stock
2 fl. oz. of vegetable oil, 3 # large dice mirepoix, 3 # nonstarchy vegetables, 1 gallon cold water, 2 tsp. of salt, 1 sachet
What cut and size should be used for the mirepoix in a vegetable stock, and why
Large dice for maximum flavor extraction without vegetable breakdown
What method and approximate cooking time is used for vegetable stock, and why
Heat the oil in a large rondeau over medium high heat. Add the mirepoix and vegetables. Cover and sweat the vegetables for 10 to 12 minutes. Add the water and salt. Simmer for 45 minutes to an hour, then add the sachet. Strain the stock
difference between a classical cream soup and a modern cream soup
A classic cream soup uses a roux to thicken it, while a modern cream soup reduces down in order to thicken it.
Are cream soups strained? Why
Cream soups must be strained and then the solids should be pureed. This produces a velvet smooth texture of a good cream soup by removing all fibers
The correct consistency for most cream soups
What is the basic formula for cream soups
4 # of flavoring ingredient, 1 gallon of cooking liquid, thickening agent, seasoning, flavoring, and finishing/garnishing ingredients
Describe the procedure for making a cream soup
Cook the aromatic vegetables to develop a good flavor base. Sweat aromatics and the main ingredient, Stir in flour if using. Slowly whisk in flavorful liquid. Simmer until main ingredient is flly cooked. Puree the soup and strain. Simmer soup, checking for flavor, consistency and seasoning before adding cream
appropriate garnish for a cream soup
They must be very hot when added. Appropriate garnishes include liaison, heavy cream, diced or julienned main flavoring agent, mince or chiffonade of herbs
Outline the difference between a Fish Stock and a Fish Fumet. Support your answer with production examples of each
A fish stock uses the swimming method that combines bones with cool water and simmers gently for 45 minutes. Whereas a fish fumet uses the sweating method and sweats the bones prior to the addition of liquid
Why is the cooking time less for a fish stock or fumet as compared to other stocks
The bones are much thinner and less dense than most other meat bones and the collagen renders at a lower temperature. Therefore, the cooking time is significantly less.
Formula for making fish stock or fumet
2 fl. oz of vegetable oil, 1 # fish bones, 1# white mirepoix, 112 fl. oz. cold water, 32 fl. oz. white wine, 2 tsp. of salt, 1 sachet
two factors contribute to the thickness in a chowder
Thickeners give chowders their flavor. You can employ the singer method, where the flour for the thickening is cooked with the aromatics instead of separately. You can also use potatoes to provide natural starch
What are the benefits to using the "singer" method when producing cream soups
Using the singer method allows the flour to combine with the natural juices of the vegetables that are being sweated. This provides more flavor and base thickening to a chowder
n thickening a cream soup using the singer method, what is important about using the proper ratio of fat and flour
Having the right amount of fat in the pan to make the roux is crticial to making soup successfully using the singer method. Too much fat will result in a greasy soup, too much flour will result in lumps
What are the general guidelines for preparing purée soups?
They are often based on dried legumes or starchy vegetables. They are entirely pureed, though occasionally some solids are left whole for textural interest. Aromatics are often found in puree soups. Water, broth, and stock are the most frequently used base liquids.
What is the correct consistency for purée soups?
Smooth soups with a very fine consistency.
What is a croûton, its uses and methods of preparation
A crouton is a piece of bread that is normally baked or pan fried. It is used as a garnish on soups.
What is the basic formula for purée soups
soups that are made from pureed vegetables, usually starchy and or legumes, that have a somewhat thicker and coarser texture than cream soups. Ratio: 4 lb one or more veg, 2 lb dried legumes, 1 gal stock or broth
What types of ingredients are used as the primary flavor in purée soups
Dried legumes, potatoes or squash
What is an appropriate garnish for a puree soup
Chopped herbs, croutons, diced meats, toasted or fried tortiallas, salsas, dollops of sour cream
What are the significant differences between cream and puree soups
Puree soups do not contain cream
What are the properties of a well made cream soup and consommé
A well made cream soup should have a velvet smooth texture. A consomme should have a well-balanced rich flavor relfecting the major ingredient. It is perfectly clear, completely fat free and aromatic.
What are the purposes of sauces?
An accompaniment to food
To enhance the ﬂavor
To add moisture to a flavor
To use the fond from the cooking process
What are the main ingredients in a sauce Espagnole
mirepoix, pincage, brown veal stock, brown roux and a sachet.
Explain the characteristics of a sauce Espagnole
Should be brown in color, thickened texture and neutral in ﬂavor as it is a mother sauce
Identify the differences in the classical and contemporary preparations of demi-glace
Contemporary demi glace omits the traditional Espagnole and instead achieves the thickened consistency through reduction. It is clear and glossy with a richer mouth feel.
What are the main ingredients of Sauce Velouté
Chicken veloute, white mirepoix, blond roux, chicken stock and sachet.
How can you avoid a ﬂour taste in Sauce Velouté
Be sure to cook the roux for 15-20 mins to cook the flour. Make sure you ratio of flour to fat is correct
What are the four criteria for evaluating Sauce Velouté
The ﬂavor reﬂects the liquid used in its preparation. The sauce should be translucent, with a deﬁnite sheen. A good whitesauce is perfectly smooth, with noticeble body and no graininess and it is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon yet still easy to pour from a ladle
How can a sauce be held so that it will not develop skin on its surface
In a bain marie with plastic wrap touching the surface of the sauce.
how an emulsion is formed
a mixture of two or more liquids, one of which is a fat and the other of which is water based, so tiny globules of one are suspended in the other. This may involve the use of stabilizers, such as eggs or mustards. Emulsions may be temporary, permanent or semi-permanent
What is lecithin and what role does it serve in an emulsiﬁed sauce
is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, and in egg yolk. It is the emulsiﬁer..the link that hold the sauce together.
What is the argument against including Hollandaise in the list of "grand sauces," and the arguments for including it?
Some chefs argue that because hollandaise cannot be made in advance in a large quantity and stored, and it is not intended as a base sauce used to prepare a variety of sauces, it does not qualify as a grand sauce. Others feel that this sauce should be counted as one of the grand sauces. Not only do they feel that this sauce can be used to prepare derivatives, but it can also be used as the basic technique to yield a variety of other sauces."
Describe two ways a broken Hollandaise can be repaired
Whisk in a tablespoon or two of hot water if that doesn't work, cook another egg yolk over simmering water until thickened (like the original directions) and add the broken Hollandaise to the egg yolk.
List ﬁve reasons a Hollandaise sauce can break
It is held about 150 degrees, the butter is too hot, the butter was added to quickly, too much butter was added, butter was not hot enough
What are the fundamental differences of Sauce Hollandaise and Sauce Béarnaise? List culinary applications for both
Sauce Hollandaise goes well with meat, ﬁsh vegetable and egg
dishes. Sauce Bearnaise is a derivative of Hollandaise and is prepared with a tarragon reduction
and a garnish of fresh tarragon and chervil. It serves will with grilled meats
What type of a sauce is Mayonnaise
Mayonnaise is a cold sauce made by combining egg yolks with oil to form a stable emulsion.
How do you "bring back" a broken Mayonnaise sauce
Combine 1 ﬂ oz pasteurized egg with 1 t. water, beat the mixture until foamy. Gradually add the broken mayonnaise into the diluted yolk, whisking constantly until the mayonnaise regains a smooth, creamy appearance.
What is the basic formula for Mayonnaise sauce
3 egg yokes
1-2 fl oz lemon juice/ vinegar
1 fl oz H2O
2 tsp Dry Mustard
What is the basic formula for Hollandaise sauce
4 egg yokes
10 fl ox Clarified Butter
White wine Vin reduction/ peppercorns/ shallots
Hot sauce or cayenne
What is a demi-glace? Describe the procedure for making demi-glace.
Traditional - combo of half brown veal stock & half espagnole, that is simmered over medium heat, skimmed & reduced by half
Contemporary - straight reduction method over many hours till a rich flavor and thick consistency is achieved
What is the difference between demi-glace and glace de viande
The difference between demi-glace and glace de viande is that glace de viande is a reduced
classic brown stock, it is thicker with stronger flavor and demi glace is a reduced veal stock with or without espanole
What type of tomato is commonly used in making tomato sauce? Why?
Roma, because they have a high ratio of flesh to skin and seeds
What types of pots are best to use when making tomato sauce
Stainless steel or anodized aluminum
What is the basic ratio for a béchamel sauce
1# gal milk
1 sachet/ White mirepoix / mushroom trim/ other aromatics
12oz-1# blond roux
Describe the method for Sauce Béchamel
Sweat aromatics in fat, add flower to fat, add oil or butter as needed, add warm liquid to
roux slowly wile whisking in, bring to a simmer and adjust seasoning with S/P and other aromatics
What are the four criteria for evaluating sauces
Body, texture flavor, and color
Dried pasta is made with what ingredients
flour, eggs, H2O and olive oil
Describe the method for cooking and serving dried pasta. Include any ratios
1# pasta for 1 Gal of water, bring to a rapid boil in a large pot and cook until al dente, drain, keep some of the cooking liquid do not shock, cover on a sheet pan, reheat in sauté pan
Describe the ratio and procedure for making brown stock
1 gal 48oz water
1# Mirepoix, large dice
4-6oz tomato paste
Roast bones, deglaze pan with a little water, transfer bones to stock pot & cover with cold water, make pinage from browned mir & tomato paste. Slowly add stock to pinage and simmer and skim for 5 hours. Add sachet and simmer one more hour. Strain.
What are three fundamental differences between white and brown stocks
White stocks are made by combine all ingredients with a cool liquid and
Simmering over gentile heat
Brown stock is made from browning the bones and mirepoix
What is the minimum cooking time for a brown veal stock
What is the purpose of cooking vegetables
What are some ways to assure that vegetables will have the best color, most flavor and the greatest degree of nutrient retention
do not overcook them
hold them at proper temperature
What should you always do before processing vegetables
Why are some vegetables par-cooked before service
to save time during service
What is the purpose of shocking vegetables after cooking
To completely stop the cooking process in order to avoid over cooking
How do you judge vegetables for doneness
taste, by tenderness
what are four changes that occur when cooking vegetables?
Texture, color, nutrient content, flavor
What are three adverse effects of overcooking vegetables?
Lose color, lose texture, lose nutrients
What are the five basic color pigments and how does acid and alkaline affect their colors and textures during cooking?
Chlorophyll(acid turns dark green alkaline intensifies color but turns it mushy), carotenoid (acid negligible change alkaline intensifies color but makes it mushy), anthocyanin (acid intensifies colors alkaline turns it an unappetizing green to blue green), anthoxanthin (acid whitens alkaline turns it to quite yellow and the texture to mush), and betalaine (acid heightens, reddens)
When cooking green vegetables, what should be done to keep their color
Cook quickly, shock after cooking & use alkaline environment
What is the difference between the Maillard reaction and carmelization?
Maillard reaction is the chemical reaction between amino acids and sugars created by heat.
Carmelization is the browning of sugar by oxidation under heat
Briefly describe moist, dry and combination cooking methods. Give an example of each type.
Moist cooking is using liquids in different forms to cook which include boiling,simmering, poaching, steaming, and blanching. Dry does not use a form of liquid tocook which includes roasting, broiling, grilling, sautéing, frying combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at a high temperature and then finished in a covered pot with a variable amount of liquid, resulting in a particular flavor
What vegetables are best suited for grilling or broiling?
Ones that are firm and not very juicy
How is a grill or broiler handled before using it to cook?
pre-heat to the right temp
clean the grill with brush
oil grill with oil rag
What is the purpose of the ribs on a broiler or grill pan
to emulate the function or look of a gridiron
How is a GRILL conditioned? Why is it important?
It is seasoned with oil to help develop flavor during the cooking process and keep food from sticking
What is the difference between a broiler, a grill and a griddle?
broiler gives off heat from above while a grill and griddle give off heat from below
List and describe the different ways peppers are charred to remove the skin
Fire roasted on a grill, sear on a hot pan, or placed over a flame then placed in a bowl with
plastic wrap over the bowl to make it easier for the skin to be taken off
Why is any excess marinade removed before grilling or broiling
Excess marinade is removed before grilling and broiling to prevent flare ups which can cause the food to acquire a bitter taste
technique is used for white vegetables to keep their color during cooking
For white vegetables to keep their color during cooking, there should be a dash of vinegar, lemon juice, or other acid. When blanching the water should be salted and brought to a rolling boil with a dash of vinegar, lemon juice, or other acid.
What is the difference between braising and stewing
The differences between braising and stewing are the amount of cooking liquid and the size of the items being cooked. Stewed items are cut into bite size portions and use more cooking liquid. In braising, the item is first seared to get color, then simmered in a covered vessel, one third to one half of the item should be
submerged, and often larger, whole items are used.
types of vegetables would best be braised or stewed? Why
Firm, fresh vegetables are best for braising. Harder vegetables such as root
vegetables are best, but softer more delicate vegetables can also be braised
What is a duxelle? List and describe different types of duxelles. What could each type be used for
A duxelle is a mixture of finely chopped mushrooms, shallots, and herbs slowly
cooked in butter until it forms a thick paste. It is used for stuffing and garnish and can be used to flavor sauces and soups.
How is a braised or stewed vegetable checked for doneness
They should be flavorful, fully cooked, and fork tender.
What is needed when cooking red vegetables to keep their color
Red vegetables should be blanched in boiling salted water that has a dash of
vinegar, lemon juice, or other acid. For the best color in red cabbage and beets, return the cover to the pot after bringing the water to a rolling boil. This helps retain acids that set the color in these vegetables. (ProChef pg. 709)
How are braised vegetables different from braised meats?
Braised vegetables are different from braised meats because most vegetables have enough liquid in them to allow for cooking in their own juices, while braised meats always have cooking liquid added to the pot.
What are the three categories of potatoes? Give examples of each type of potato.
The three categories of potatoes are: low moisture/high starch, moderate moisture/
starch, and high moisture/low starch. Examples of each potato are:
Low moisture/High Starch: Idaho or Russet, some fingerling varieties
Moderate Moisture/Starch: red skinned, waxy yellow, Yukon Gold, Yellow
Fin, certain fingerling varieties, all purpose, boiling, chef's, Maine, US 1
High Moisture/Low Starch: new potatoes, some fingerling varieties
Why are peeled or cut potatoes held in water prior to cooking?
Peeled or cut potatoes are held in water prior to cooking to prevent discoloration, they will first turn light pink and eventually turn to dark grey or black.
types of potatoes are best suited for deep-frying?
The types of potatoes that are best suited for deep-frying are low moisture/high starch. The low moisture content makes them less likely to splatter.
What types of potatoes are best suited for baking?
The potatoes that are best suited for baking are low moisture/high starch (i.e. Idaho or Russets). Although low moisture potatoes are best for baking, yellow waxy potatoes also yield good results. The higher the moisture content of the potato, the creamier and moister the baked potato will be. High starch potatoes become mealy.
When blanching potatoes for French Fries, what temperature should the fat be? What temperature should they be finished at?
When blanching French Fries, the temperature of the fat should be between 300-325 degrees F. To finish, the temperature of the fat should be between 350-375 degrees
What is the difference between saturated, monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated fats? Give examples of each
Saturated are filled with hydrogen and is solid at room temperature. Double bonds in the hyrdrocarbon chain create either mono saturated fats (sinlge double bonds) or poly saturated (multi double bonds) which are liquid at room temp.
Saturated fats are most commonly found in animal fats such as meat, seafood,
poultry skin, egg yolks, and dairy products. Coconut, coconut oil, palm oil, and
palm kernel oil are plant products that are high in saturated fats. Monounsaturated
fats are found in canola oil, peanut oil, olive oil, peanuts, walnuts, almonds,
pistachios, and avocados. Polyunsaturated fats help lower cholesterol and
are found in salmon, fish oil, corn oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are derived from plant sources and are
considered the healthy fats. Omega-3 fatty acids fall under the polyunsaturated fats.
What are at least five enemies of frying fat?
Enemies of frying fat are: heat, oxygen, water, salt, food particles, and detergent.
List at least five indications that fat needs changing?
lots of sediment
when changing between types of proteins
if it smokes or foams
Briefly describe the following deep-fat frying terms:
Swimming method - battered foods; allowed to float in the oil without a basket.
Basket method - breaded foods, cooked in oil in metal basket
Double basket method - for items that float, putting a second basket on top ensures that they are submerged and cook evenly
Recovery time - the time needed for the fat to regain the proper temperature after foods are added.
Why are fried potatoes placed on a wire rack or paper towels after frying?
To let the excess oil drain off, in order to keep them from softening and being over-saturated in oil.
What does the term "free floating" mean?
Allowed to float in the fryer without the metal basket
What are the major differences between deep-fry and sauté?
In deep frying much more fat is used, items are usually coated in flour, breading or batter, the fond is not deglazed and sauces are made separately.
What types of potatoes are best suited for whipped and Duchesse potatoes? Why
Russets or waxy yellow potatoes because they are low moisture, high starch.
What is the difference between and Pommes Duchesse and whipped potatoes?
Pommes Duchesse contain egg yolks and are often piped and then baked to golden brown.
Describe starch gelatinization as it relates to the cooking of potatoes.
Part of the reason potatoes are cooked starting with cold water has to do with the fact that potato starch gelatinization occurs between 137 and 150 degrees, which if potatoes were added to hot water the outside area would begin to happen immediately, even as it took a long time for the center of the potato to reach this point. Raising the temperature slowly allows the entire potato to cook evenly.
What is the sequence of 3 stage breading? What is the function of each step of the process?
First, dry the item and toss in flour, then wet in egg wash, then toss in breading material. The first step provides an insulating layer between the item and the breading to be applied, the second provides the moisture that allows the third layer, which will create the crunchy coating when fried, to stick.
How do you determine the doneness of a potato that has been boiled?
Pierce with a skewer. There should be no resistance.
Why is it important to purée potatoes while they are still hot?
If potatoes are allowed to cool too much the puree will be gummy
How should mashed or whipped potatoes be held for service?
Over a hot-water bath or in a steam table, covered directly on the surface with plastic wrap.
In terms of moisture and starch level, which potato is best for casserole potatoes?
Low moisture potatoes, such as Russets.
What type of potato is most suitable for sautéing?
Moderate moisture potatoes, such as Yukon gold.
What is the advantage of par cooking potatoes that will be sautéed?
Cook time at service is greatly reduced.
In your own words, describe the qualities of a successful sautéed potato
A golden crisp exterior and a tender interior
What is the formula for fresh pasta
1# flour/ 4 eggs/1 oz oil/ salt & water
What is the difference between fresh pastas and dried pastas?
Fresh pasta: cooks fast, has a softer texture and doesn't hold as well after cooking
Dried pasta: takes longer to cook, has a firmer texture, can be held after cooking
does the protein content of flour affect pasta dough
The more protein the tougher and firmer texture
What is the purpose of kneading and resting fresh pasta doughs?
Makes dough smooth & elastic by activating the gluten & distributes all of the ingredients and lets the moisture absorb
Once fresh pasta is rolled out, how should it be stored for service
dusted with flour or semonlina, on a sheet tray & refrigerated
What is the formula and method for cooking pasta
1# of pasta/ 1G water with 1.5oz salt
Boil large amount of salted water in a large pot & cook till al dente & drain
How do you determine the doneness of pasta
Taste it, it should be cooked through without being mushy. Dried should be cooked al dente
What is the difference between cooking fresh and dried pastas? What are the similarities?
Difference: Dried takes longer and can be held after cooking
Similarity: Cook in large amount of salted water, taste to check doneness
If pasta is cooked ahead of time, how should it be held for service and reheated?
Cooled quickly on sheet pan, covered and refrigerated, then re-warmed in hot water or sauce for service
Ingredients in Dried Pasta
made from finely ground semolina flour and water (no egg, usually) that is mixed into a paste, pushed through molds, and cut into the multitude of pasta shapes
scribe the method and guidelines for cooking filled pastas.
Lots of water with salt; gentle boil so the pasta doesn't break open and do not over cook
What is the importance of removing air pockets from filled pastas
Helps to prevent the pasta from bursting when they are cooked
What is a beurre noisette and how is it made?
Browned butter, add butter to skillet cook over medium heat till form subsides and continue till the milk solids begin to brown
How should filled pastas be stored prior to their cooking?
Laid flat on a sheet stray on parchment paper, cover with plastic & refrigerated
Describe how filled pastas are reheated for service.
Reheated in salted water or sauce
What different cooking methods can be applied to dumplings?
Pan -Fried, Deep Fried, Steamed, baked
What type of potato is best suited for gnocchi? Why?
Old potatoes, and mealy rather than waxy varieties, are preferred for their lower
water and higher starch contents, which means that less flour is needed to make the
dough, so less gluten forms and the dumpling is more tender.
Compare and contrast the use of room temperature versus hot potatoes
when making gnocchi.
If potatoes are allowed to cool too much the gnocchi will get more elastic and tough
What happens to gnocchi dough when it is overworked?
When gnocchi dough is overworked, it becomes very dense and heavy. Gnocchi is supposed to be light and fluffy.
What cooking techniques are applied to potatoes that are cooked for
When making gnocchi, first you boil the potatoes. Once cooked and drained, you
want to dry them out either on the stove or in an over. While they are still hot, you
want to puree them through a food mill or potato ricer. Then you add eggs, flour and seasoning, mix and shape gnocchi. After chilling these, they are then cooked in simmering water until they float, where they can be skimmed, tossed in oil to prevent sticking and held cold until service.
What is the purpose of simmering gnocchi? Describe the procedure for simmering gnocchi.
Gnocchi is simmered because it allows them to hold their shape. By quickly boiling
them in water until they float, the will not fall apart when sautéing them for service.
After the dough has been kneaded and rolled out, it is cut into the desired size. The
gnocchi is then cooked in salted, boiling water until they rise to the top and float.
This means that they are finished.
How should gnocchi be held for service?
After simmering, gnocchi should be drained, tossed in oil and held in a draining perforated hotel pan, cold, until service.
Rice is indigenous to what part of the world?
Rice is indigenous to Asia.
What is the difference between white rice, brown rice, and wild rice?
Brown rice includes the outer fruit and seed coats that make up the bran, and the
embryo and oil- and enzyme-rich aleurone layer. White rice is the central mass of
the endosperm cells, freed from all other parts of the grain. It is mainly starch and
protein. Wild rice is the whole grain of a North American grass. It is heated to dry it
out and develop flavor, which gives its endosperm a distinctive glassy appearance.
How does the liquid to rice ratio change when cooking long grain, brown, and wild rice?
When cooking white rice, you use 1 part rice to 1 ½ - __ parts liquid. For brown rice, you
use 1 part rice to 2 ½ parts liquid. For wild rice, you use 1 part rice for 3 ½ parts
What is the difference in starch content in long and short grain rices?
Short grain rice has the highest starch content.
What type of rice is most suitable for pilaf?
Long grain Basmati rice is the rice most suitable for pilaf.
Describe the formula and method for rice pilaf. When made properly, how should it look and taste?
The formula for rice pilaf is 1 pound rice, 28-32 fluid ounces of liquid, and
seasonings. When made properly, the grains should not be tender but with a
noticeable texture, not soft and mushy. The individual grains should separate
easily. There should be no liquid visible. Pilafs that have been overcooked have a
pasty flavor and the individual grains may be mushy and or soggy and may clump
Describe the formula and method for boiled rice. When made properly,
how should it look and taste?
When boiling rice you want to put 1 part rice and the appropriate amount of liquid
into a saucepan with a tight-fitting lid. Bring the water to a boil, keep pot covered,
and then reduce heat to low. Let the rice simmer for 20-25 minutes. When it's done the rice grains should be separate without any bite but not falling apart.
What type of rice is used to make risotto?
Arborio rice is used to make risotto.
Describe the formula and method for making risotto. When made properly, how should it look and taste?
The formula for risotto is 1 pound Arborio or other white rice, 48-56 fluid ounces
cooking liquid, and seasonings. Italians describe a properly cooked risotto as
all'onda, meaning that the risotto has a creamy, almost porridge-like consistency,
but individual grains are slightly firm with a discernable texture. The finished
consistency should be creamy and the risotto grains al dente.
What advance preparation can be done to risotto in order to serve it throughout a service period without losing quality?
Restaurant cooks prepare risotto to order by cooking the rice well ahead of time the
traditional way until it's just short of done, the refrigerating it. This allows some of
the cooked starch in the rice to firm, giving the grain more resilience than if cooked
fully and simply re-warmed. The just before serving, the chilled rice is reheated and
finished with hot broth and enrichments.
How does wine affect the cooking of risotto?
Physically: The acid in wine encourages the fragmentation of starch chains, so that the starch granules gelate at a lower temperature, which makes the risotto less viscous; Culinary: enhances the flavor of a risotto.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of using converted rice?
Advantages: It improves the nutritional quality (more vitamins), feeds bacteria in
the large intestines, slows down the rise in blood sugar when eating, gives a nutty flavor,
hardens the grain (less sticky); Disadvantages: The grain has a firmer texture, and needs a
longer cooking time.
What are the qualities of a well made Hollandaise sauce?
Qualities of a sauce Hollandaise are a light, smooth and creamy texture (not broken or
curdled), a luster shine, a buttery and slightly acidic taste, a lemon-yellow color, balanced
seasonings, and a pourable consistency.
What are the qualities of a properly made glace de viande?
Qualities of a glace de viande are a jellylike/syrupy consistency (due to the high gelatin content), and a highly concentrated savory taste.
What grain is used to make polenta?
Yellow corn (finely ground)
Describe the method for polenta. When made properly, how should it look and taste?
Method: Bring the (seasoned) cooking liquid to a boil, add the cornmeal in a thin stream, stir to prevent scorching and avoid lumping, reduce heat to a simmer, stir constantly until the polenta pulls away from the sides of the pot, remove from heat, incorporate butter, adjust seasoning; Look and Taste: The polenta should have a smooth and creamy texture, and be well seasoned.
Describe different ways that polenta can be served.
Soft polenta is served warm and viscous directly after preparation; Firm polenta has
been spread out and cooled down after preparation and can be formed/cut in different
shapes and sautéed, grilled, baked, or pan-fried (breading optional).
What purpose does the béchamel serve in rice croquettes?
The function of the Béchamel is to glue the rice grains together, give moisture and flavor to the finished product.
How does a jus de veau lié differ from an Espagnole or demi-glace?
Espagnole sauce and a classical demi-glace are roux (flour) thickened fortified brown veal stocks that need a long cooking time, whereas Jus de veau lié is a fortified and reduced brown veal stock thickened with a slurry (corn- or arrowroot starch) and therefore prepared in a shorter period of time.
Why do some chefs prefer a jus over a flour thickened sauce?
The contemporary jus is generally "lighter" than the classical flour thickened sauces and
can be prepared from the meat juices/drippings that develop while cooking the meat.
What is the purpose of sorting and washing legumes?
Sorting by spreading out is to remove stones and molded legumes, sorting by covering
with water is to remove legumes that are too dry for culinary uses; Washing removes dust.
What is the purpose of soaking legumes? Do legumes always have to be soaked before cooking?
Soaking legumes is to rehydrate them, soften their outer layer (bran), which shortens and evens the cooking process; No, legume do not have to be soaked in general.
How are legumes properly soaked?
There are two methods: With the long soak method sorted and rinsed legumes are
placed in a container covered with cold water (+2 in.) and soaked between 4 hours to overnight depending on the type of legume; With the short soak method legumes are placed
in a pot covered with water (+2 in.), brought to a simmer, then removed from the stove,
covered and soaked for 1 hour.
How are legumes "short soaked"?
With the short soak method legumes are placed
in a pot covered with water (+2 in.), brought to a simmer, then removed from the stove,
covered and soaked for 1 hour.
What is the proper cooking technique for legumes?
Place legumes in a pot and cover with cooking liquid (water, soaking water, stock,
broth), bring to a full boil, reduce the heat to a simmer, stir occasionally to prevent
scorching, and cooked to desired doneness; check level of cooking liquid, so that the
legumes are always covered; salt and acidic seasonings are added when legumes become
tender, since they make the skin of legumes tough; drain the legumes or let them cool in the
cooking liquid for later use.
What is the test for doneness for legumes?
Legumes are done when they are completely tender and creamy on the inside but still retain their shape. They should be soft and easy to mash what a fork or spoon.
How should legumes be cooled after cooking?
Legumes should be left to cool in their cooking liquid if they are to be used later. This keeps the skin tender.
How should legumes be cooled after cooking?
Legumes should be left to cool in their cooking liquid if they are to be used later. This keeps the skin tender.
What affect does salt have on the cooking of legumes? When should salt be added when cooking legumes?
Salt is typically added to legumes after they are tender. Adding salt or acidic ingredients, such as citrus juiced or vinegar, earlier can toughen the skin if added at the start of cooking time.
What is a marinade? What different types are there? What are their uses?
A marinade is an appareil used before cooking to flavor, tenderize and moisten foods; may be liquid or dry. Liquid marinades are usually based on an acidic ingredient, such as wine or vinegar; fry marinades are usually salt based.
Describe the three different types of emulsions. What are their differences and what do they have in common?
The three types are Permanent (Mayo, milk), Semi- Permanent( hollandaise and derivatives), and temporary (vinaigrettes). The each have a continuous phase and a dispersed phase. The main difference is the time that the dispersed phase will stay suspended and emulsified.
208. What are the three components of an emulsion? What role does each play in an emulsion?
The three components of an emulsion are the dispersed phase, continuous phase and the emulsifier. The emulsifier lowers the surface tension making the two liquids combine easier. The dispersed phase is the component that is suspended within the continuous phase. I.e., Mayo (yolk=continuous; oil=dispersed)
What is the basic formula for temporary emulsion vinaigrette?
3 parts oil to 1 part acid
What is the correct balance of flavors in vinaigrette?
The challenge of making good vinaigrette lies in achieving balance, a point at which the acidity of the vinegar or juice is tempered but not dominated by the richness of the oil.
How is salad greens prepped for service? How should they be held for service?
Salad greens are prepped for service by cleaning them by plunging them in a sink filled with cool water, lifting them form the water, and draining the sink, and repeating until there are no more signs of grit remaining in the water. The green should then be spun in a salad spinner to dry it off. Then cut or tear the green into bite size pieces. They should be held in a refrigerator for service so that they stay crisp.
How far in advance should salad greens be tossed for service?
Salad greens should be tossed right before service so that the greens don't get soggy.
How does a vinaigrette dressing affect vegetable color pigments?
Vinaigrette is acidic so these are the various changes based on pigment:
Chlorophyll (green)- turns dark green
Carotenoid (yellow, orange)- negligible change
Anthocyanin (reddish-purple)- intensifies color
Anthoxanthin (white)- whitens
Betaline (burgundy, reddish-orange)- heightens, reddens
How does a vinaigrette dressing affect the textures of foods?
The acid in vinaigrette can have some tenderizing properties if used as a marinade, but for the most part the moisture in the vinaigrette can make food soggy after a while.
How can one determine the freshness of an egg?
The main things to look for in an egg that indicates freshness are: size of air pocket, proportion and density of white, and firmness of yolk, the height of the egg when cracked in a plate.
How are eggs graded? What determines the different grades of eggs?
Eggs are graded by candling or x-ray. The grade is an approximate indication of the quality of the egg back at the ranch, at the time it was collected. Eggs are graded on proportion of white to yolk, firmness of white.
Describe the safety and sanitation issues associated with the storing, handling and cooking of eggs.
Eggs should be kept in the refrigerator at all times. When eggs are cooked, to reduce the chance of salmonella, they should be cooked at 140oF for 5 minutes or 160oF for 1 minute.
Briefly describe what happens to egg proteins as they are coagulated.
The proteins are denatured; the proteins stretch out into long strands and then tighten back up forming new bonds changing the properties and shape of the protein.
What happens to eggs as they are overcooked?
Excessive coagulation of the proteins forces water out and the eggs become too dry.
What is the formula for poaching eggs?
Chilled fresh eggs, 5 to 6 inches of simmering water, 1 fl oz vinegar per 1 gal water, ½ oz salt per gal of water.
How can eggs to be poached be prepared ahead of time for service?
Submerge the egg in the poaching liquid but remove when it is slightly undercooked, shock in cold water, store in perforated pan, reheat by lowering into simmering water for 30 to 60 seconds, serve while hot.
What are the qualities of a properly poached egg?
Should have fully coagulated egg white, warm center that is partially set and should be tender with a compact oval shape
Describe the method for fried eggs. What are the qualities of properly fried eggs?
Heat pan over medium high, add fat, break eggs into cups, pour eggs into hot pan, cook until desired doneness. Flip if asked for over easy, med, hard, or baste with hot fat. Proper fried eggs should have shiny tender fully set whites and compact shape.
What are the varying degrees of doneness associated with fried eggs?
Sunny side up, over easy, over medium or over hard
Describe the method for hard-cooked eggs. What are the qualities of a properly hard-cooked egg?
Place eggs in large pot, fill with enough cold water to cover eggs by 2 inches. Bring water to a boil immediately lower the temperature to a simmer, time eggs for 12 -15 minutes depending on egg size, shock and peel eggs. A hard cooked egg should be fully cooked, but tender, with no green rim around the yolk.
What has happened if hard-cooked eggs have a green ring around the outside of the yolk?
Because egg was over cooked and the build up of ferrous sulfide
What is the purpose of searing?
Searing is used to develop flavor and color.
What are the difference between oven and pan searing and its effect on the finished product?
Oven searing is used for large cuts because the extended roasting time will produce deeply colored exterior without an initial sear. A pan sear is for smaller cuts and is done on the stovetop with high heat and a small amount of fat. In both cases, the finished product will have better flavor and color.
What cuts of meat are best suited to roasting?
Tender meats such as the loin, leg, small birds, dressed fish
What types of sauces are made to accompany roasts?
Any type of pan gravy or jus
Describe pan gravy and a jus lie' and differentiate between the two.
Pan gravy is a sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from a roast and combining them with a roux or other starch and additional stock. Jus lie is a meat juice thickened lightly with arrowroot or cornstarch.
How does pan size and depth affect the final product when roasting?
A proper roasting pan has a flat bottom with low sides to promote hot air circulation around the food. The food should fit comfortably in the pan, but if the pan is too large the pan juices may scorch. Using a rack helps air to reach all surfaces of the food. `
Why are most items trussed or tied?
Most food items are trussed during cooking to ensure that it maintains its shape, this also may promote even cooking.
How can you best determine the internal temperature of a roasted item
The best way to determine the internal temperature of a roasted item is to use a meat thermometer being sure to insert in the thickest part of the item.
What is the maillard reaction and how does it effect the overall quality of a roasted item?
The maillard reaction is a name for the enzymatic browning that occurs on proteins and carbohydrates under the application of heat at or exceeding 300 degrees Fahrenheit. It can improve the
overall quality of a roasted item by providing an appealing color as well as creating a desirable textural
What is the purpose of resting a roasted item and its effect on the finished product.
The purpose of resting roasted items is to allow the proteins to relax giving the internal juices time to evenly redistribute. This will allow the finished product to retain its natural juices upon being sliced for service.
List three characteristics of a properly roasted item.
Three characteristics of a properly roasted item include, a tender product, a juicy product, and even coloration throughout the surface of the product.
What is meant by larding and barding?
Larding and barding are both examples of adding additional fat to an item to be roasted to enhance flavor, color and/or juiciness. Barding is the process of wrapping the exterior layer with thin sheets of fat while larding consists of injecting fat into the tissue of an item to be roasted.
Explain the difference between resting and carryover cooking?
While resting is the process of intentionally allowing foods time to relax after being cooked(in
order to allow juices to redistribute) carryover cooking is the process of foods continuing to cook through retained heat after being removed from the source of heat(often overlooked by the home chef resulting in overcooked product)
What does the term mesclun refer to?
Mesclun is a salad mix of assorted small, young salad leaves .
What is the standard ration for basic vinaigrette?
The standard ratio for a basic vinaigrette is three parts oil for every one part vinegar.
List the proper internal temperature for:
A) Beef cooked
i. rare- 135 degrees
Ii. Medium rare 145 degrees
Iii. Medium 160 degrees
Iv. Medium well NOT LISTED IN PRO CHEF!!!
V. well done 170 degrees
B) Properly cooked chicken. 165 degrees
C)properly cooked pork. 160 degrees, new standard 140
What types of items are best suited for sauté?
Items best suited for sauté are smaller potion size cuts that naturally tender.
What does "a la minute" mean? Why is this term used in relation to sauté?
A la minute refers to style of cooking where an item is cooked to order rather than being prepared in advance and held for service. This term is used in relation to sauté because to sauté is to cook something very rapidly(a style suitable for a la minute conditions), and often when a sauce is cooked a la minute it is prepared in the same pan the item was cooked in.
What must be done to the surface of a white meat/fish item before it is placed into a hot sauté pan? Why?
The surface of a white meat/fish item must be thoroughly padded dry and often dredged in flour before being placed into a hot saute pan in order to ensure that a nice crusty/browned exterior is achieved during cooking and help prevent sticking
What will happen to the item if the pan is not hot when the item is placed in it?
The item will stick to the bottom of the pan if the pan is not properly heated before the addition of food.
Why are the amount of surface area and the depth of the pan important when sautéing? What is the result of a pan that is too large? Too small?
The amount of surface area and depth of a pan are important when sautéing because you want to ensure that your food will not steam itself because it is too close together and to be sure the fat in the pan does not scorch due to being overheated. If a pan is too large the fat occupying the vacant areas of the pan will not be able to handle the extra heat and will scorch, ruining the entire dish. A pan that is too small for the items being cooked will not be able to hold enough heat for the items and the the overcrowded pan will cause the items being cooked to steam each other, resulting in an improper texture/exterior and poor coloration of the item.
Define "fond" and explain why it is important to sautéing?
The French term for stock. Also describes the pan dripping remaining after sautéing or roasting food. This is important because is usually deglaze and use in sauces for a better, stronger flavor.
What cuts of meat/protein are best suited for pan-frying.
The cuts for pan-frying are usually small portion, naturally tender cuts. Loin cuts, top round, or poultry breasts are all good choices. Lean fish, such as sole or flounder.
What must be done to the surface of a red meat item before it is placed into a hot sauté pan? Why?
It should be dry because the moisture doesn't help with the searing of the meat.
What must be done to the surface of a red meat item before it is placed into a hot sauté pan? Why?
It should be dry because the moisture doesn't help with the searing of the meat.
List five (5) differences between sautéing and pan-frying.
The heat is higher in sautéing, the meat is breaded in pan-frying not for sauté, pan frying takes shorter time to cook than sautéing and meat is usually really plat for pan-frying a difference than sautéing could have a bigger size.
What would potentially happen if an item were placed into oil that was not hot enough while pan-frying?
The item that has been pan-frying will absorb all the fat and be really grease also the texture will not be the same.
Describe the difference between the "Standard Breading" and the "A L'Orly" method of coating a protein item.
Standard is a dry breading method that uses flour and egg wash and a coating. L'orly is a wet coasting method that uses a batter to coat food, a fluffier coating.
Describe the appearance of a properly cooked pan-fried item.
The object of pan-frying is to produce a flavorful exterior with a crisp, brown crust, which acts as a barrier to retain juices and flavors
Is it proper to pour the sauce accompaniment over a pan-fried item when plating? Why?
No is not proper because the moisture of the sauce will run the appearance of the pan-fried item and it will make the exterior soggy.
Why is the amount of surface area and the depth of the pan important when pan-frying?
It is important to have the right tool for pan-frying that means a pan needs to be large enough to hold foods in a single layer without touching. If food is crowded, the temperature of the fat will drop. Also the pan should be dipper enough to avoid splashing hot oil out of the pan.
Describe how to prepare Sauce Chasseur.
The base for this sauce is a brown sauce made from brown stock, additional roasted bones and trims, mirepoix well browned, tomato paste, roux and a sachet of spices. Then we add mushroom, shallots, white wine, brandy, tomatoes finish with butter and herbs.
Describe how to prepare Sauce Piquante
Reduction of white wine, white wine vinegar & shallot. Add sauce espangole and simmer 10 mins. Add gherkins & finish with tarragon, chervil, parsley and season with S&P
What are the three most important characteristics of a meat/fish item that will be grilled or broiled?
Tender cuts, small portions and leans items like fish.
Describe what happens to a piece of meat while it is resting.
Meat always carry over after is taking out of the heat. So when is resting it allows to keep cooking just a bit more and allows all the juices and temperature to spread out.
How do you know when a grill is at proper grilling temperature?
By putting your hand on top of the grill you can estimate how high is the heat. 10+ seconds is low heat, 6-8 seconds is medium heat, 2-4 seconds is high heat. The grill can go up to 650 F but the minimal temperature to start grilling is 300.
What is the essential equipment necessary to set up a grilling station?
The essential equipment necessary to set up a grill station are: wire brush, oil, oil brush,thongs, metal spatula, salt and pepper, sanitizer bucket.
What is the dual purpose of adequate grill marking (cross-hatching)?
The purpose of crosshatching is to provide visual appeal, to add seared taste to meat and allow the natural fats in the meat to release the food from the grill preventing tearing.
What types of fish are most suited for grilling?
The most commonly grilled fish are fatty fish, such as tuna or salmon.
How do you prepare meats or fish for grilling /broiling?
To prepare meat for cooking, pound the meat to even the thickness for an even cooking
time, trim off any excess fat, and season lightly with salt and pepper.
What types of sauces and accompaniments (toppings) are appropriate for grilled/
Any sauces used to accompany the meat should be there to enhance the smoky flavor and aroma coming from the fish. Examples include salsa, compound butter, and vegetable coulis.
What are two similarities and differences between broiling and grilling?
Grilling and broiling are similar because the both use direct, radiant heat to cook the food item and is an excellent method for cooking tender, portion sized pieces of meat.They differ in that one is from the bottom first (grilling) and the second if from the top (broiling) and one has cross-hatched grill marks while the other does not.
What is meant by zone grilling?
Zone grilling refers to a grill with several different temperature zones where foods can cook and be cooked at varying temperatures and speeds.
Describe, in detail, the procedure for a stew.
To make a stew: brown the meat and remove, brown aromatic vegetables, reintroduce meat, add stock and simmer, add other vegetable garnish prior to service.
What types and cuts of meat are best suited to braising/stewing? And why?
Meats that are more tough and fibrous (closer to the hoof of the animal) are the best suited for stewing or braising.
List two differences between braising and stewing, and swissing.
Time - Braising takes longer to cook
Size of meat cuts used - in stewing, the meat is cubed before it is cook while a braise is left whole
Liquid level - the cooking liquid covers 1/3 to ½ of the meat while the liquid in a stew covers the meat.
Preparation of food prior to serving - stew is ready to be served while a braise typically needs to be sliced or portioned out.
Excellent methods for cooking meat with lots of connective tissue
Cook through a slow transfer of heat through a liquid
Cooking is done in a covered pot
The cooking liquid is used as the sauce
Doneness is determined by checking for fork tenderness
What types of meat are not well suited to braising or stewing? Why aren't they?
Very tender pieces of meat or fish are not suited for braising because they cooking time will cause the pieces to become tender too quickly and fall apart.
Describe what should be done to achieve a rich deep flavor and deep brown color in a beef stew.
The meat and aromatics should be browned thoroughly to achieve a deep brown color.
Describe three techniques for thickening the sauce for a braise or a stew.
Three ways to thicken a sauce are reducing it, adding a roux, or adding a starch slurry.
Why is braising referred to as "combination cooking"?
Braising is combination cooking because the meat is first seared on the outside using dry heat before it is slow cooking in a liquid medium which renders the collagen into gelatin.
How can you determine doneness with a braised meat item?
Doneness can be determined by testing the meat for fork tenderness.
Describe at least two similarities between braising and stewing.
Stews and braises are based on the same cuts of meat, poultry, or fish, larger cuts divided along the seams then trimmed of exterior and interior fat, gristle, and sinew, and cut against the grain for tenderness. The meat is seasoned before cooking with salt, pepper, marinades, or dry rubs. They are both cooked in liquid matching the flavor of the protein, either flavorful stocks, sauces, vegetable or fruit juices, or water. Stews differ from braises in that they are cooked in more liquid and the foods are cut into uniform bite sized pieces.
When braising, what happens to the tough connective tissue in the meat?
When braising, at temperatures greater than 160˚F, collagen in connective tissue dissolves into gelatin. This is well above the 130-140˚F range at which muscle fibers maintain their juices, making braising tough meats succulent a challenge. Cooking slowly, exactly or barely over 160˚F, minimizes drying out of fibers. Gelatin holds onto moisture, adding succulence to the meat. Young animals contain exceptional amounts of collagen, making excellent braises. Also, bringing the temperature slowly up to a simmer, perhaps an hour or two, weakens the connective tissue and reduces time needed above 140˚F.
What types of items are best suited for poaching? For simmering?
Poaching: naturally tender foods of a size and shape that allow for quick cooking work best. Chicken breasts, shellfish, fish cut to portion sizes.
Simmering: eggs, sauces, soups
What temperature ranges should be applied to the cooking liquid when poaching and simmering?
Define "court bouillon" and tell how it is made and what it is used for.
Court bouillon is an acidic poaching liquid for poaching fish.
Cold water 1G
White wine vinegar 8fl. oz.
Salt 2 tsp.
Carrots, sliced 12oz.
Bay leaves 3 ea.
Parsley stems 12 ea.
Black peppercorn ½ tsp.
Simmer for 50 minutes. Add peppercorns and simmer 10 minutes. Strain then cool or use.
Describe the differences between deep poaching and shallow poaching.
Shallow poaching: cooked on a bed of aromatics in a small amount of liquid (cuisson) which can be reduced into a sauce. Really a combination method (steaming) because of the use of a parchment lid (cartouche). Very delicate items.Deep poaching: cooked submerged in court bouillon. No sauce made from liquid.
Why is the quality of the liquid used in a shallow poached dish especially important?
A sauce will be made from the liquid. Usually a white sauce (Beurre blanc/ sauce vin blanc).
Describe, in detail, how to prepare a Sauce Vin Blanc after shallow poaching a portion of fish.
Transfer the fish to a container with some of the liquid and cover.
Reduce cuisson by 2/3. Add veloute and simmer for 1 to 2 minutes.Stir in cream and reduce to nappe. Add lemon juice if more acid is needed and salt and pepper. Strain.
Describe, in detail, how to prepare Sauce Béarnaise.
Black peppercorns ¾ tsp.
Dried tarragon 1Tbsp.
Tarragon stems 3 ea.
Tarragon vinegar 3fl. oz.
Dry white wine1 ½ fl. oz.
Water 3fl. oz.
Egg yolks 6fl. oz.
Clarified butter, warm 24fl. oz.
Tarragon, chopped 3 Tbsp.
Chervil 1 ½ Tbsp
Salt to taste
Combine pepper, dried tarragon and stems, and vinegar in a small pan. Reduce until au sec.
Add wine and water to the reduction and strain.Whisk yolks with redux and place over heat. Cook until ribbon stage.
Add butter gradually, whisking.
Add tarragon and chervil and season.
Combine pepper, dried tarragon and stems, and vinegar in a small pan. Reduce until au sec.
Add wine and water to the reduction and strain.
Whisk yolks with redux and place over heat. Cook until ribbon stage.
Add butter gradually, whisking.
Add tarragon and chervil and season.
How much clarified butter would be added to 6 yolks in making Sauce Béarnaise?
18 fl. oz.
Define the term `vegetarian'
An individual who has adopted a specific diet (or lifestyle) that reduces or eliminates animal products. Vegans eat no foods drived in any way from animals. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians include dairy products and eggs in their diet. Ovo-vegetarians include eggs in their diet.
Describe the differences between the terms Vegan, Lacto-Ovo, and Lacto.
Vegans eschew meat, eggs and dairy, as well as other animal products such as honey. Lacto vegetarians do not eat meat, but do eat animal products such as milk, cheese, butter, as do Lacto-Ovo vegetarians, who also eat eggs.
What is seitan and how is it utilized in vegetarian cooking?
wheat gluten that originated in China & is made by washing wheat flour until starch is dissolved. It can be fried, baked, steamed, simmered, etc. Its is very versatile.
List an example of two complimentary proteins
Beans and rice or tortillas
- Peanut butter sandwich
- Macaroni and cheese
- Tofu with rice (or any grain)
- Hummus with pita bread
- Grilled cheese sandwich
- Yogurt with nuts
- Noodle stir-fry with peanut or sesame seed sauce
- Lentil soup or dairy-based soup with bread
- Whole grain cereal with milk
- Tacos filled with beans or lentils
- Quinoa salad with black beans and feta
List three examples of carbohydrate-rich foods
Potatoes, bread, rice.
Define the term `organic' as it applies to vegetarianism.
Foods produced in a manner that they do not involve modern synthetic inputs such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers, do not contain GMOs, not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food additives. Using organic ingredients is thought to be better for the environment and the consumer.
What does GMO refer to? How does it relate to vegetarianism?
Genetically Modified Organism. DNA molecules from multiple different sources combined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. When transferred to an organism it gives it a new set of genes. Some vegetarians are vegetarian for ethical reasons. Genetically Modified Organisms are thought to be extremely detrimental to the environment, and may have negative effects on the consumer.
Define the term `organic' as it applies to vegetarianism.
The term organic means foods that are produced using methods that do not involve modern synthetic inputs such as pesticidesand chemical fertilizers, do not contain genetically modified organisms, and are not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food
What does GMO refer to? How does it relate to vegetarianism?
A GMO is a genetically modified organism and refers to an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Many animals are fed genetically modified corn and soy so even if you choose to eat organic produce, you may be ingesting GMOs though the meat that you are eating. To avoid GMOs all together, it may be beneficial to become a vegetarian.
The minimal internal product temperature for holding potentially hazardous food is
140 degree F
What is the minimal internal temperature when cooking:
Cook all raw beef, pork, lamb and veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F. Cook all raw ground beef, pork, lamb, and veal to an internal temperature of 160 °F. Cook all poultry to an internal temperature of 165 °F
Running drinking water for thawing frozen food should be what temperature?
unning water for thawing frozen food should be cold (under 40 degrees F)
Raw clams and oysters may give our customers which virus if they are not purchased from a reputable supplier and obtained from certified waters?
Time/temperature abused finned fish such as tuna, mahi-mahi and bluefish can cause which food borne intoxication?
Name three potentially hazardous foods
cooked rice & beans
foil wrapped potatoes
herb & garlic olive oil
What does the word sanitize mean?
The process of reducing the number of microorganisms on a clean surface to safe levels.
What illness is most closely associated with poor hand washing which warranted the use of the no-bare hand contact regulation in the FDA Food Code?
The human poisoning caused by eating some tropical marine fish which, through their diet, have accumulated naturally occurring toxins from phytoplankton is
According to the FDA, what is the proper amount of time for washing one's hands?
20 seconds with soap and warm water
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Which regulatory agencies have the most influence on the day-to-day operations of a food service operation?
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The leading cause of cross-contamination is:
The pathogen most often associated with eggs and poultry is:
According to the FDA, the "Temperature Danger Zone" is
41 - 135 degrees F
The length of time shellstock identification tags must be kept on file is:
Freezer units should store food at a temperature of
0 degrees F or below
How long can hot food be held at the proper temperature?
Up to 4 hours
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