Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
ANTHROPOLOGY FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (55)
Marriage outside a defined social group. I.e. incest taboo
Marriage between people of the same social category
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other. Limits children. FORAGING AND INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES. Units of consumption.
A form of polygamy in which a man may have more than one wife at the same time. HORTICULTURAL AND PASTORAL SOCIETIES. More children. Units of production. However most men only marry one wife because cannot afford more.
payment from groom to bride
payment from bride to groom, patrilineal patrilocal, Agricultural society
A woman is permitted to marry more than one man at a time. Practiced in Tibet and by Inuit Eskimos.
marriage of one woman to men who are brothers. Tibet practices this to maintain families' land holdings intact.
several men and women have sexual access to one another.
practiced complex/group marriage. Did not work well because people wanted to exclusively have sex with a particular person, used to monogamy. Source of friction, people paired up so the Leader decided to choose who slept with who, and the society dissolved. Gave stock to remaining members, became business in present day.
Residence patterns determine where people ----- after marriage.
Refers to the pattern in which newly married couples set up their own households, conjugal, like with nuclear family. ONLY ONE THAT DOESN'T GO TO EXTENDED FAMILY'S HOUSEHOLDS.
A married couple will live with the groom's family
Living with the bride's family
couples may choose to live with either the wife's or husbands kin
Married couple goes to live with the groom's mother's brother. (MATRILINEAL KINSHIP - inherit from the uncle (senior member of his kin group), not the father
the central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced
Your father's brother's children, or your mother's sister's children. Children of two brothers or two sisters.
The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers children or father's sisters children).
kinship in our society is ----
narrow; Legal ties make kinship less functional because you can choose who gets stuff when you die
Societies are narrow for 2 reasons
-when government takes over (in agricultural societies)
-nuclear family can take care of all the things that broad kinship system take care of (in foraging societies)
Narrow kinships are ------ kinship systems.
The tracing of descent through only one parent (matrilineal OR patrilineal)
a form of bilateral descent in which an individual may choose to affiliate with either the father's or mother's descent group; part of non-unilineal
allows mammals to be receptive and have ability to bear children (humans do not have it),
-marriage is a social version of oestrus cycle
focus on all lines of descent, multiple kinships or choose
Function of kinship systems
helps anthropologists understand how family is organized
Types of kinship systems
patrilineal - through father's side. PASTORAL/HORTICULTURAL
matrilineal - through mother's side. HORTICULTURAL
ambilineal - focus on all lines. CHIEFDOM
bilateral = both sides are equal. INDUSTRIAL
double descent = The tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes.
6 basic kin naming systems
Eskimo, Hawaiian, Omaha, Crow, Descriptive, and Iroquois systems.
-Most common in Europe and North America. Members of the nuclear family are given terms of reference based only on their gender and generation.
-No other relative is referred to by any of these terms (mother, brother, son).
-Aunts and uncles are distinguished from parents in the Eskimo system and separated only by gender, spouses of aunts and uncles are also given same name.
-All cousins lumped together.
-No kinship distinction is made between uncles, aunts, and cousins with regard to side of the family
-in BILATERAL systems, where nuclear family is given more importance than distant relatives/extended family
-The nuclear family is de-emphasized.
-Relatives within the extended family are distinguished only by generation and gender.
-This results in just four different terms of reference. -Ego's father and all male relatives in his generation have the same kin name (1).
-Likewise, ego's mother and all female relatives in her generation are referred to by the same kin term (2).
BASICALLY, father + father + father + mother + mother if you have 2 blood-related uncles and an aunt
-Similarly, all brothers and male cousins are linked by giving them the same kin term (3). Sisters and all female cousins are also referred to by the same term (4).
BASICALLY, sister + sister + sister + brother + brother if you have 2 girl cousins, 1 boy cousin, a sister, a brother
COUSINS TREATED LIKE SIBLINGS
-Polynesia where it is usually associated with ambilineal descent
-GIVE IMPORTANCE TO PATRILINEAL DESCENT
-Relatives are lumped together on the basis of descent and gender
-PARALLEL COUSINS OF SAME GENDER = SIBLINGS
-Father = father's brothers
-comparative unimportance of the mother's side of the family in a society that strongly follows the patrilineal descent principle.
-children of mother's brother referred to as mother's brother
-GIVE IMPORTANCE TO MATRILINEAL DESCENT
-mirror of omaha, except opposite
- neither patrilineal or matrilineal and is usually not as strongly one or the other.
-same term of reference is used for father and father's brother (1) as well as mother and mother's sister
-lumps together parallel cousins from both sides of the family with siblings but distinguishes them by gender -What sets the Iroquois system apart is the fact that cross cousins are also lumped together and distinguished by gender. The reason is that there usually is a preference for marriage to cross cousins in societies that use the Iroquois system.
-father's sister is referred to as aunt, father's brother is called father
Gender is socially constructed because of
-genotype (XX vs XY chromosomes)
-phenotype (body hair, genitalia)
"The network of sound relationship which provides for the maintenance of social order, both within and between societies"
Types of political organizations
state (agricultural "govt") ***MOST CENTRALIZED
chiefdom (large horti)
tribes (pastoral, small horti)
bands (foragers) ***MOST DECENTRALIZED
mechanisms of social control
internalized - guilt
informal - ridicule (Richard Lee), gossip, shunning, praise
Richard Lee article, Eating Christmas in the Kalahari
-HE DIDN'T SHARE FOOD BECAUSE HE DIDN'T WANT TO CORRUPT FOOD. HE SHARED TOBACCO IN EXCHANGE FOR INFORMATION, GOT OX, THEY TOLD HIM IT WAS SMALL, THEY HAD CUSTOM OF TELLING PEOPLE THE OX IS SMALL AS A JOKE BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T WANT PEOPLE TO BE ARROGANT. THIS IS RIDICULE, WHICH IS A MECHANISM OF SOCIAL CONTROL.)
Nuer homicide case
-"Homicide" (It can lead to blood feud because people can take revenge on murderer or his/her family)
-The Nuer did it by getting family to leave the area, they would get the leopard skin priest to house the murderer. They can't take revenge while he's in house of leopard skin priest. The leopard skin priest would be a mediator to help people agree on COMPENSATION WHICH GENERALLY TOOK THE FORM OF CATTLE. THIS PAYMENT IS KNOWN AS "BLOODWEALTH." THIS IS A FORM OF CIVIL LAW. THE NUER DID NOT HAVE CRIMINAL LAW/PUNISHMENT.
criminal law is
punishment, about guilt/innocence
only in state agricultural govt.
individual helps with understanding of
supernatural and unknown
beliefs that everyone will follow
religion is a mechanism of
social control, social code to live by
nature spirits is
magic, animalism, inhabits some things, shows exceptional traits
rituals act out ----
myths. They are repetitive
Rights of passage
ceremonies marking important transitions in life such as the passage from being single to being married
rights of intensification
reenergizing beliefs, group collective, daily prayers
priests powers come from holding a ----
shamans have powers -----.
everyday; They are not part of a religious institution
Nayar (Warrior cast)
Consanguineal household (People united by blood). Marriage is from man outside of village. Family of bride and bride travel to groom's house. The marriage may or may not be consummated. Then bride leaves. She may or may not see man again. When woman returns home, she will be free to go into sexual relationships. When she gets pregnant, one claims paternity, but doesn't have much financial obligation. The bride's brothers bring up the woman's children. Household is made of woman, her sisters, her brothers, and the children of the women.
Belief in a supernatural force that inhabits some things in nature but not everything. It is recognizable because it will look different than other things of its kind. Term for this is MANA. (Different color, different size)
1) Degree to which women participate in subsistence activities.
2) Degree to which the public sphere is separated from the domestic/private sphere
3) Kinship (Matrilineal/matrilocal = women have higher social status) (Patrilineal/patrilocal = men have higher social status)
Sets with similar terms
Anthropology; Chapter 17, 18, 19, 20 21
Kinship Terms and Definitions - NAS 1000
2c. Kinship and Domestic Life
Anthropology Kinship, Family, Descent, and Marriage
Other sets by this creator
Medical Microbio LAB TEST 2
Anatomy & Physiology I TEST 1
Islam EXAM 1
World Cinema FINAL
Other Quizlet sets
Henderson BioH 211 (A&P) Spring 2018 Final Study G…
november/december terms list
final for history essay questions
anthro 2 midterm 2
How did agriculture contribute to the drastic increase in global human populations?
Exchange among friends and relatives in which the time of return is not stated is defined as:
South Africa's Cape coast called Blombos Cave has yielded material dating to between 70,000 to 110,000 years ago, including
How to distinguish members of a lineage in a matrilineal society?