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pols 211 final
Terms in this set (88)
theories are generally shaped or informed by...
what were the 3 endings to the article "why iran should get the bomb"?
1. convince iran to end pursuit of nucelar weapons
2. stop short of testing nuclear weapon but have breakout capacity
3. iran continues its course
what are the 2 different levels of analysis?
1. level of nation state
2. level of international system
who are the critics to idealism?
which battle marked the first piece of recorded history in 2500 BCE and occurred between two city states?
The battle of Lagash and Umma which was between democratic Athens (naval) and oligarchic Sparta (land).
tell me about the Peloponnesian War...
Thucydides wrote history of it .
tells of impression and response, similar to Plato's the reublic.
" the strong will do what they have the power to do and the weak will accept what they have to accept." (aka. dont tell us what to do, either submit or fight)
What is Machiavelli's the prince about?
rulers chief concern is security and stability of his own state, not need for justice.
what was the 30 years war?
1618-1648. division of roman catholic and protestant. occured in Bohemia (Czech republic) fought against the Hapsburgs.
What was "on the rules of war and peace"?
written by Hugo Grotius, needed set of rules to govern international politics
tell me about the peace of westphalia...
1648. statesmen tried to end the 30 years war. met in Westphalia to sign, therefore ending war in 1648. this enshrined the constitution of the westphalian international system.
which 5 concepts emerged because of the peace of westphalia?
1. territoriality (no longer family with other states)
2. sovereignty (supreme qualified legal and political authority)
3. autonomy (eliminates universal autonomy)
4. principal of 'cuius regio euis religo' (whoever reigns determines the religion of the state, therefore no longer went to war over religion, secularized)
5. principal of balance of power (no one state should take over Europe)
what did 1648 usher in?
the classical European state system
what 5 major states emerged in 1648?
britian, prussia, france, russia and austria
no one was able to gain power but france was a big threat
Who fought the 7 years war?
french and british friction spread from north america to europe, brit has the upper hand in end of war.
In what year did the american colonies become independant?
in what year did the french peasents revolt?
1781, resulting in the jailing and death of king louis the 6th and marie antionette
tell me about the congress of vienna....
1815. ended french revolutionary and nepolianic wars, meeting of great powers to set regular meetings, must all agree on intervention or expansion which sought to put down the revolutions.
who was mitternich?
foreign minister of vienna, ensure no revolution in austria, lost job due to revolution in 1848
who was bismark?
isolating opponents via secret treaties, ensure peace within great powers, went to war with all, fired due to collapse of alliances and development of 2 rival blocs (german austrian and french russian) germany unified and rose to power resulting in crisis and war in 1614.
what are the 4 important dates you need to rememeber????
1618 - peace of westphalia ended 30 years war
1815 - vienna congress ends revolutionary and nepolianic wars
1919 - paris peace conference
1945 - san fancisco conference
tell me about the paris peace conference...
1919. largest international conference yet, many treaties signed namely the treaty of versailles. woodrow wilsons 14 points - war aims in US WWI, more liberal international system, principal of self determination. 14th point adressed collective security and the league of nations , US never officially joined.
what are some failures of collective security in light of WWII
depression of the 1930's, rise of facism, Japan Italy and Germany invade neighbors, pearl habour, d-day (operation overlord) US uses atomic bombs in japan.
How did the UN come to be?
first coined in january 1942 at declaration of untied nations, allies refer to themselves as UN.
What was the Bretton Woods Conference?
protectionist measures turn economic hard times into great depression, issue of economic collapse, gold system - standard for all currencies = inequality.
what is the IBRD also known as?
the World Bank
what does GATT stand for?
General Agreement on Tarifs and Trade
what does FERS stand for?
Fixed Exchange Rate System
what is collective security?
a pre-existing agreement that states agree to respond and punish any one state that compromises peace. "community watch system"
what is collective defense?
threat on one = threat on all
What happened at the San Francisco Conference?
charter of UN signed by all 51 members, concert led collective security, 5 great powers make up the security council + 10 rotating members in 2 year terms. headquarters in New York, Geneva and the Hauge. works to pass resolutions to world problems.
What are 3 themes of the cold war?
1. end of empire
2. nuclear weapons
what were some effects of the colonial period?
empowerment of specific elites, artificial boundaries, economic relationships of dependency.
who was the quickest to decolonize?
Britain, followed by France and then Portugal
what are two types of nuclear weapons?
1. tactical (smaller)
explain the difference between vertical and horizontal proliferation...
vertical = stockpiling into the hands of 1
horizontal = spreading to new actors
What is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty?
189 signed it. controls horizontal proliferation. 5 countries allowed to be nuclear us uk china russia and france. canada disvows nulcear weapons.
who were the holdouts from the nuclear non proliferation treaty?
Israel, india, pakistan and north korea
What are some quotes of Churchill's fulton address?
"sinews of peace" and "the iron curtain has descended"
The truman doctrine talked about....
policy of resisting soviet attempts of subjugation or outside pressures
why was "the hotline" helpful?
it allowed the americans and soviets to call one another therefore allowing easier communication
what is the "new world order"?
collapse of communism, rise of capitalism. democracy and western alignment. arms race in east asia.
what countries classify under the 4th world?
Niger, Haiti, Mali
What ushered in a new period?
9/11. world trade center and pentagon attacks. american led invasion of Iraq.
who does realism believe to be the most important actor in international politics?
ex. billiard ball (cant look inside to see how it works)
how do realists look at power?
as relative. in relation to other states. measured in materical terms ex military, economic production and territory.
how do realists view anarchy?
absence of overarching authority, no world government.
what are suprastate actors?
organization or creations of the state or several states (ex. UN)
what are substate actors?
organizations created within the state (ex. redcross)
what are coorperations?
larger more influencial then states themselves (ex. Mittal Steel)
what do liberals have to say about the state?
no 2 states are alike. internal politics are important.
what do liberals have to say about power?
military power is not the only power, measured in situational ways.
what do liberals have to say about anarchy?
agreements eliminate anarchy, cooperation breeds cooperation.
What is the prisoners dilemma?
confess or lie? what length of sentence?
How do liberals view war?
due to failure of our current technologies rather then inevitable outcome, there are always ways to avoid war. optimistic about peace.
tell me a little bit about the case study on syria...
governed by asaad family. pretests begin in 2011, government cracks down violently = civil war. refugees spread out to neighboring countries. chemical weapons used to attack civilian and rebel population by syrian forces. chemical weapons should be banned. radical groups obtain power due to lack of international support. direct threat to government. ISIS emerges.
what does marxism believe?
all interactions are effected by economic systems. worlds wealth defines structure. interested in the evolution of systems.
according to marx the 3 basic classes are...
1. capitalists (own all means of production)
2. proletariat (industrial workforce)
3. bourgeoisie (merchant or middle class)
how did marx feel about the dominance of capitalists?
he rallied for revolution, important impact on world politics
how does dependency work?
developing countries become industrialized because of the colonial relationship with western countries. their economy becomes dependent on the relationship and the fact that they can export and sell raw good to first world countries. they are unable to produce finished products and therefore earn minimal wage. to prevent this the developing countries must truly industrialize.
the world system theory is....
an attempt to create a worldwide theory of underdevelopment based on dependency.
according to the world system theory define core, semi periphery and periphery.
core = industrialized heart of the world economy where finished goods are created for profit ex. US, EU, Japan
semi periphery = partially industrialized ex. phillipines, india
periphery = resources and raw materials retrieved ex. brazil, iran, nigeria
core controls, others must accept
how does alternative theory look at the state?
not an independent actor. all actors are representative of dominant social forces.
how does alternative theory view power?
measured in terms of wealth and control of world economy.
what is the alternative theory view on war?
caused by rivalry between dominant social forces and little men are caught in the middle, fight over vital resources (oil).
tell me a bit about the case study on kashmir...
mainly muslim population. india buddhist, muslim pakistan. refuse to join pakistan or india, pakistan invades. accedes to india. currently devided. india promises referendum.
what does each ideology value?
realism = order
liberalism = liberty
alternative theorists = social and material justice
what is a feminist theory?
women are inferior in system due to patriarchal or masculinizing attributes.
what underpins the global sex trade?
deep structural issues. gender has become sexualized and subjected to hierarchical understandings of sex
what is nationalism?
a political principal which holds that the political and the national should be congruent
what are the 3 phases of nationalism?
1. the enlightenment and the early state system - feeling of belonging.
2. the civic and self determination movements of the 18th and 19th century - belong together as citizens
3. the romantic and primordial nationalist movements of teh late 19th century - aka ethnic nationalism
what is the division seen in culture?
globalization and traditional cultures. ex. jihad vs mcworld
what are the two basic forms that economic flows come in?
1. rational choice - focuses on incentive structures
2. institutionalized - regimes are created to respond to collective action problems
tell me about the case study on the euro crisis...
Mastricht treaty of 1992 makes EU members work towards common currency. uk and sweden do not participate. 17 did. application of one monetary value across many economies = problem. germany sees the eurozone as a means of enforcing tight monetary policy among neighbors, others see it as emulating germany while maintaining their policies. germany is benefited therefore should spend more and other countries must restrict.
how does terrorism differ from guerilla war?
not territorial, goal to win war of mind or attrition.
violence by small groups to achieve goal
what are some positive aspects to drones?
low risk target to enemies in remote areas, minimize collateral damage. limit freedom of terrorist leaders. government support. set terms by responsible actors.
what are some negative aspects to drones?
does not limit spread of conflicts or conserve number of enemies, rather increases fear. leaders are easily replaced. costly and prone to malfunction.
what are 3 system level explanations for war?
1. competition for position
2. status inconsistancy
what is 1 state level explanation for war?
what old rules are laid aside in war?
women now participate and are targets. children too.
what is the security dilemma?
actions that one state takes in order to ensure their own security at the expense of another state.
what problems are there in arms races?
1. divert production of consumer goods to arms
2. stockpiles weapons for future exploitation
3. widespread destruction potential
where are races for arms currently seen?
east asia, middle east, south asia
what did START 1 accomplish?
reduction of US and Russian nuclear arms followed by START treaties that did not follow through.
What did NEW START accomplish?
commits the two states to limiting deployed nuclear warheads to 1500 each.
whats issues are there in the conventional arms trade?
far more people are killed and far more complicated to control
what was the ottawa convention?
1st convention to regulate the use of small arms and regulating anti personal landmines. ban production and use of APMs and dismantle existing within 10 years. 160 party currently.
what are cluster munitions?
multiple smaller munitions, detonate on impact, dormant for years
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