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24 terms

Physical Science: Chapter 12 - Forms of Energy

Motion, Forces, and Energy Energy and Tools Heat Light Sound
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speed
the distance traveled in a certain amount of time
force
any push or pull that makes an object start moving, stop moving, speed up, slow down, or change direction
friction
a force between surfaces that slows objects down or stops them from moving
inertia
the tendency of an object to remain in motion or stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force
work
the use of a force to move an object a certain distance
energy
the ability to do work, either to make an object move or to change matter
simple machines
a machine with few moving parts, making it easier to do work; the six types of simple machines are the lever, pulley, wheel an axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw
load
the object being lifted or moved by a machine
effort force
the amount of force needed to move something
efficiency
the measure of how much useful work a machine puts out compared to the amount of work put into it
heat
the movement of thermal energy from warmer to cooler objects
conduction
the transfer of energy between two objects that are touching
convection
the transfer of energy by the flow of liquids or gases, such as water boiling in a pot or warm air rising in a room
radiation
the transfer of energy through space
fossil fuels
a substance such as coal or oil that was formed millions of years ago from the remains of plants and animals; these fuels are nonrenewable resources, and, when burned for energy, are a major source of pollution
wavelength
the distance from the top of one wave to the top of the next
spectrum
a range of light waves with different wavelengths
reflection
the bouncing of light waves off a surface
refraction
the bending of light as it passes from one transparent material into another
vibration
the back-and-forth motion of an object
sound wave
an area of bunched-up and spread-out air particles that moves outward in all directions from a vibrating object
frequency
the number of times a sound source vibrates in one second
pitch
the highness or lowness of a sound as determined by its frequency
amplitude
the energy in a sound wave