103 terms

IS Final

IS 428 Final Exam Review

Terms in this set (...)

Master Data
Master data is data that is used to configure the SAP system to a specific company. It is referred to often but rarely changes. Labs 1,2,3,5, and 6 are about inputting Master Data.
Purchase Info Record
A link between a material and its supplier. It is used to assign sources during the purchasing process.
Materials Requirements Planning. It is a system that calculates what materials are required, based on demand and existing inventory. Its outputs are planned orders and purchase requisitions.
How do you interpret the stock screen?
The easiest and quickest way to interpret the stock screen is to read the lights. As we discussed in class, a green light means that we have enough of a material to meet demand. A red light means we do not. It is possible to have a green light with zero stock and a red light with lots of stock.
What is a Purchase Requisition
A purchase req is an informal document from a dept to purchasing.
What is a Purchase Order
A PO is a formal document between a company and a vendor.
What are Preqs and Planned Orders?
Preqs and Planned orders are both outputs of the MRP process. In our system, purchase reqs are for things we buy and are converted into purchase orders. Planned orders are for things we make, and are converted into production orders.
Summary of Low Carb Lab
In this case there were several different components that we were responsible for completing. First, we needed to establish the material master data for our business. Many times this data needs to be entered several times for it to be utilized properly. To do this we needed to establish our raw materials, semi-finished goods, and finished goods. From this point we then were required to create vendors for our items in the system. After we created our vendors we were then able to create purchasing info records. This transaction created a relationship between our material and vendors. It enables SAP to continuously update the information for these relationships. Next, we were able to create purchase orders for our materials needed. This required us to make two separate purchase orders because we were buying our materials from two separate vendors. In this same part of the lab, we recorded a goods receipt in order to identify that the materials were delivered and then verified that the materials were delivered. At this point we then were able to create production data through MRP tabs and the work scheduling tab. Next we set up sales views and pricing for the materials. After setting the prices we were able to create sales orders. Finally we processed our production orders and confirmed our goods receipts from production in order to finish the lab.

MD07 is used to access the stock requirements list. More specifically, you are able to look up information about specific materials. This transaction is useful when identifying the type of stock that is available as well as need for an order. In this transaction you are able to see planned orders as well as production order. Additionally you are able to see the amount of stock that is available. This is an extremely useful resource for planning.
Two important terms in this lab were purchase requisition and purchase order. A purchase requisition is used to notify what the purchasing department needs to buy, in what quantity, and when. A purchase order is a document generated by the buyer and is then sent to the seller in order to create a binding contract. The main difference between these two terms is that one is used to notify a buyer when to purchase materials and the purchase order is the piece of paper that makes it a contractual agreement.
Additionally it is important to distinguish between a purchase requisition and a planned order. A planned order is an MRP request for procurement of a certain quantity at a certain time. The main difference between these two terms is that the planned order utilized MRP and a purchase requisition goes directly to the purchasing department.
What does credit have to do with risk?
Credit can help to determine the riskiness for a new customer to enter into business with a company based on their credit analysis. They will be aware of the risks associated with entering into business with a firm.
What is the SAP IMG?
SAP IMG is the implementation guide. This is used to adjust the SAP system to work for any specific requirements that a company might have.
What is the difference between setting a warning message, versus setting an error message, when configuring credit limits?
When a warning message is set the message can be surpassed. An error message means that something went wrong when configuring the credit limits. This would be a warning for potential customer that they should not use the credit configuration from a firm with errors versus one with a warning.
Once a sales order is saved, what are the remaining steps in the order to delivery process?
Create outbound, pick and post, create invoice, receive payment
How can you tell what steps have been completed in the order to delivery process for any given sales order?
In order to determine the status of your order you need to use transaction va03 in order to look up your sales order. From there you need to consider which subsequent documents have been through part of the sales order process. From there you use the environment tab and select the display document flow. From there you can view the order as an outbound delivery. Then you pick it and post it. Finally you will send out the invoice, receive the payment and if it says clear then the order is completed.
What does Picking mean?
Picking refers to when you pick something off the shelf to get it ready.
What is the significance of Post Goods Issue?
Post goods issue means that you no longer own that particular good.
Summary of Credit Lab
For the Credit and Receivables Risk Lab was meant to create a credit management system in order to better manage the accounts receivables in SAP. This would help to minimize customer default while making sure the customer sales are reasonable and minimized. In order to do this I set updates for the sales documents and then created a risk category in SAP. This created the ability to maintain automatic credit control and set the customer limit.
Explain the use of validity dates in pricing. IE: why?
The reason that we use the validity of dates in pricing is because we need to set records for the prices. Additionally this will also help when you are setting discounts in order to see when the discounts were established. The validity date is established by the start and end date.
Which takes precedent in determining price: Condition PR00 or PB00?
You need to use condition PR00 first because this code finds the correct prices even when prices are changes throughout transactions.
What 3 types of discounts did you configure for this lab?
K004: Scale quantity -10, amount -10
K007: scale quantity- 1000, amount-10
PB00: scale quantity -10, amount 10
What can be done to ensure that a customer does not get too many discounts, and buy the material under Fitter Snacker's cost?
In order to prevent this you can set minimum prices. First, you need to cancel any current orders before you can add the discounts. The sales deal is applied first and then the discount is automatically applied. Prices can be set in order to avoid accidentally creating a money-losing price.
Summary of Pricing Lab
The first step for the conditioning technique for pricing is to determine the pricing procedure. In order to accomplish this I needed to document the pricing procedure and then to look at the configuration data. I then will create a standard order a select the specific pricing procedure "A". Next you need to do the customer pricing procedure. SAP needs to be able to determine which pricing procedure to use. In this case we wanted to use the Houghton Health Club as our customer, since we want a unique pricing procedure for this customer. Next we needed to define the pricing procedure determination. For this step we needed to specify what the pricing procedure is by combining the document pricing which was set as "A" and then the customer pricing procedure "Z". At this point you can set the parameters for the pricing procedure. Essentially what this process does is tells SAP which "codes" should be used when creating a sales order. Next I needed to test the pricing procedure. I created a sales order for Houghton Health Club in order to do this. SAP will now be able to use the information that was implemented early in order to fill the sales order. Next I validated the sales order information in order to ensure that the data being used was accurate and then created a record for this. Next I completed the process of pricing with discounts. After this point we saw that there were too many discounts created and needed to fix this as well as set minimum pricing.
Discuss what you think is the major flaw in the business decision process for Geneva's old way of doing business.
The major flaw that we have recognized in the business sharing process for Geneva Pharmaceuticals is their technique for information sharing. Across the supply chain there are different means being used to obtain information. This inconsistency could cause detrimental problems throughout the supply chain. Each segment of the supply chain was utilizing a different type of system. When information was going from one level to the next, there would often be gaps created. In order to comply with the FDA while still using the multiple systems, it required information/data to be manually inputted at each level of the supply chain. The FDA requirements were in regards to the variety of sizes of drugs, shapes, colors and consistencies. Because of the need for these manual entries, there were many errors made and the data would be altered based on the incorrect data. In order to stay competitive in this market, the supply chain for Geneva Pharmaceuticals would need to become one harmonic system so that they did not have errors that conflicted with their ability to comply with FDA regulations.
Briefly describe the Geneva's IT infrastructure before the SAP/R3 implementation and what problems were caused by it.
Before the SAP/R3 implementation there were several operational databases in use. There was different software for procurement, manufacturing, accounting, sales, and other critical components for the business. Each of these systems was being used based on individual needs. These different systems were unable to operate in sync. Data that was necessary to be shared throughout the entirety of the system was not being seen throughout this structure. Employees were entering information manually. Since the systems were not compatible throughout the supply chain, it was necessary for the data to be entered often several times within each of the systems. This process led to a higher rate of errors and data inconsistency. By upgrading to SAP/R3, Geneva Pharmaceuticals would not only be improving their consistency and data accuracy, but also significantly reduce their system maintenance costs.
Geneva's branded drug division decided to use BPCS as their ERP system. Research and describe what BPCS is and any changes in the system or company since this case was written. Cite your sources.
Business Planning and Control System (BPCS), developed by System Software Associates (SSA), is a highly versatile ERP system that can be applied to Finance, Planning, Distribution, Manufacturing, and Systems Applications. The key to the BPCS diversity is its compatibility with a variety of programming languages like RPG, SQL, as well as several obscure IBM languages unique to SSA partnerships with specific suppliers and vendors.
In the time since the case was written, Software Systems Associates changed their name to SSA Global Technologies and, through several acquisitions, was earning in the neighborhood of $800 million annually ("Infor closes SSA", 2006). In 2006 SSA Global was acquired by Infor Global Solutions for $1.36 billion ("Infor to buy SSA Global", 2006), making Infor the third largest ERP provider in the world.
Discuss the problems and solutions that came out of the first phase of the SAP/R3 implementation.
Geneva regrettably made a few blunders during Phase I. The Director of Supply Chain Management was selected to be the project manager, despite having literally no prior experience with R/3. When it came time to bring in a team of outside consultants, Geneva hired a firm called Whitman-Hart that neglected to send any personnel with experience on the business aspect; their technical knowledge was exceptionally good but their business sense was lacking. Additionally, despite Geneva's need for extensive customization, the Phase I project manager chose to use an accelerated implementation method (fittingly called ASAP) that was simply too rigid and too cookie-cutter.
In early 1998, Geneva hired a new CIO named Randy Weldon, who had extensive experience with R/3. Weldon gutted the project management team and appointed personnel from all three stakeholder groups: users, IS staff, and consultants. However, Weldon found that certain solutions would not be easy to apply because he had come along too late in the implementation phase to start making drastic changes. He and his IS team leader decided to finish Phase I with Whitman-Hart and ASAP because they had crossed the point of no return.
The new project management team found at the end of Phase I that R/3 had improved the performance of some of their business metrics, which allowed them to streamline and consolidate job roles—they were able to free up a considerable amount of manpower that had traditionally been used for data rekeying and validation, and reemploy it elsewhere in Geneva.
Discuss the changes in the SAP/R3 implementation process from Phase I to Phase II. In other words, what lessons learned and what improvements made?
The improvement that made the biggest impact is arguably the appointment of Anna Bourgeois to the project leader role for Phase II. She came to Geneva with three years of R/3 experience at Compaq, and was the leader of Geneva's IS team when she was brought onto the Phase I project. She recognized early on that Geneva would need more customization and chose to hire two consulting firms to replace Whitman-Hart: she brought on Arthur Andersen for their implementation expertise and Oliver White to handle process customization.
Additionally the number of IS personnel in Phase I (only 10) grew to 20 and then ultimately 35 during Phase II, while the number of Phase I users (20) grew to 30.
Describe the primary focus of Phase III and discuss the shortcomings of SAP/R3 to satisfy the needs of this phase and how Geneva plans to overcome them.
It wasn't until 1998, four years after the originally planned start date, that Phase three actually took off. Verne Evans, director of Supply Chain Management was to be in charge of the R/3 initiative to integrate both the supply and demand side of their business into the SAP system. The problem with their SOP for demand and supply was essentially there lack of any formal one. Most of Geneva's operations were separated from each other and acted independently. There number one goal was remove this independence and integrate all operations together. Once they had created a formal SAP process, which included manual entry of data and teams to analyze that data, they ran into somewhat of a problem. The production planning team occasionally was able to determine the production schedule of the next month one month prior, which essentially made their SOP redundant and time consuming.
SAP is an excellent database system, but that is all that the Geneva team saw it as. The goal of phase three was to integrate phase one (demand) and phase two (supply) in order to forecast an approximate production schedule based on that demand. Geneva's team didn't think SAP as it was had the capability of analyzing this data to create production schedules. SAP was used for data storage, not analysis. However, SAP eventually added the Advanced Purchase Optimizer module, otherwise known as APO. The APO added analytic functions to eh SAP software. This new module, combined with SAP's already existing SOP module, was believed to finally be able to meet Geneva's SOP needs.
A big part of phase 3 was Geneva's ATP, or available to promise. This referred to whether or not Geneva would be able to fulfill customer orders as was originally told to the customer. (citation.) With an accurate production schedule planner using SAP's SOP and APO modules, Geneva believed they would be in better position to inform their customers when to expect their orders, which would vastly improve their ATP business metric.
Briefly discuss how Geneva plans to extend its technology infrastructure beyond its organizational boundaries to integrate the entire supply chain.
Geneva wants to use vendor managed inventory (VMI) to do this. VMI allows for real time information on vendors inventory to be updated in real-time, and using this information to place just in time orders without the customer having to manually order from Geneva. Geneva currently uses a VMI named Score (citation), but some executives believe that using SAP's ATP module in unison with VMI would benefit the company greater. Although many companies are hesitant to adopt VMI, Geneva believes that the industry is heading in its direction and wants to be ready when it does.
Why use reorder point planning for things like pallets?
There is a difference in how we purchase oats vs. pallets. Oats are a dependent requirement; we do not plant out oats. They will get planned when the energy bar are planned. Pallets are not part of the Bill of Materials; they are an independent requirement.
Companies always try to keep a low inventory of items. So then why is safety stock necessary?
There are two main reasons for carrying safety stock. First, the extra inventory ensures that we do not run out when it is needed. Also, there is variability in demand and lead time which makes it necessary to have safety stock.
How do we determine the total replenishment time?
The replenishment lead time is determined by evaluating three different factors: processing time for purchasing, planned delivery time, and goods receipt processing time. The processing time for purchasing is the first step which would be "today" or the release date to the purchase order date. The second step, planned delivery time, is the point between the purchase order date and the good receipt date. Finally, the goods receipt processing time is the time between the goods receipt date to the material availability date.
How do we determine the appropriate reorder point?
In order to do this we will need to judge the rate of consumption. The ROP is based on the replenishment lead time & the rate of consumption. When we get to the reorder point, we kick off an order, we will continue to consume the inventory until we reach "zero" and then it will jump back up when the order is received.
When stock falls below the reorder point, what process actually creates the purchase requisition?
The MRP Planning Run creates the purchase requisition.
Why, after our second issue of pallets to a cost center, wasn't a purchase requisition created?
In manual reorder point planning, which is what has been specified for this material, the safety stock value is assumed to be included in the reorder point figure. In other words, the way SAP has programmed reorder point planning, the ROP (Reorder point) of 80 that we entered in view MRP 1 is assumed to include the safety stock of 30, so we expect to consume 50 pallets before the order is received. Thus, the demand during lead time is 50 and the reorder point of 80 INCLUDES a safety stock of 30 units. SAP could have chosen to subtract the safety stock entry from the stock level and compare that value to the reorder point, but they chose to make the safety stock entry an "informational" value. Both approaches are valid, and the important thing with any software is to be clear how things are calculated by testing it thoroughly.
Summary of CBP Lab
In this lab we created a reorder point for consumption-based planning. In order to do this we first needed to create the material grocery pallet. Then we viewed the stock/requirements list to view the available quantity for the material. Next we did MRP Planning Run. This was due to the fact that the pallets fell below the reorder point. Therefore in SAP we needed to create a purchase requisition to plant for this material. Therefore we created a purchase order from the purchase requisition. Since we have a safety stock, we will have time to create new orders without depleting our entire inventory. After this we did goods receipt for Purchase Order and then do the goods issue to the cost center. Then we did the planning file and MRP planning run. Finally, we did a second and then a third goods issue to cost center.
Explain what time-series analysis is, and how a forecast is created.
Time series analysis measures a single thing at a bunch of different times. This can vary in accuracy, and is usually not accurate at all
What are the two phenomena that the SAP tests for when conducting a simple forecast.
It has a predictive analysis-trust in a forecast, is it stable?
Time series data.
Explain what an outlier is, and how it should be handled when doing forecasts.
An outlier is a point that does not belong in the data. There are two reasons that it could be present: Random error and human error. It could be an instance that may not occur again. It should be handled to follow the trend of the rest of the forecast if it is an outlier. In this lab the red line represented the forecast and the yellow line represented the historical data.
What are two ways of judging the quality of a forecast?
Low mean absolute deviation score.
Low Error Total
Summary of Forecasting Lab
Describe the genesis of e-gatematrix and the stakeholders involved.
The genesis of e-gatematrix involves first the ideal about having a rhythm throughout the entirety of the supply chain and optimizing the use of Internet based technologies. Initially there were over 40,000 items that could be passed to the customer directly or indirectly. The unique business model of e-gatematrix focused on cost efficiency, responsiveness and innovation in service provisioning. The company was incorporated in March of 2000 within Gate Gourmet. Gate Gourmet had been examining the quality and costs of their operations during the time surrounding the incorporation. There were several process redundancies and inefficiencies in regards to their quality and cost of their services. There was a need for a company whom airlines could outsource the above-the-wing services to. One of the major stakeholders for e-gatematrix was AirCo (among other airlines); without a successful relationship with them e-gatematrix would be unable to expand. AirCo was searching for a value-creating partnership. AirCo agreed to outsource all of these services to e-gatematrix for five years with SupplyTech as a supplement to their services as a technological infrastructure.
Discuss the difficulties of providing airline services with the existing (pre-e-gatematrix) supply chain model.
There were several difficulties of providing services with the existing supply chain model. First, the manufacturers/suppliers/distributors ranged from small to large companies. AirCo at this time was buying goods from hundreds of different suppliers in order to support their needs. Distributors were responsible for being the intermediary for supplying the goods from the manufactures/suppliers to AirCo for both small and large items, which was unnecessary. With the large number of manufacturers/suppliers/distributors there came a large number of contracts to support the wide range of supplies items were needed which had extremely high dollar values. Second, a global catering industry controlled about 50% of the market share. In the regional areas these companies held about 40% of the catering industry. AirCo would be responsible for the additional production cost for each of the meals in addition to the fixed costs they had to pay. There were also cabin clearers that were from a separate company that cleaned the catering items, incurring further costs. Finally, the airlines themselves ranged with dozens of different commercial carriers. There was poor visibility and poor information sharing throughout the supply chain. The only way for them to provide their demand signals was through flight schedules. There was not a single concrete way for these flight schedules to be shared throughout the supply chain. At the time electronic means were relatively expensive so very few companies would receive schedules electronically. These could also range from as little as 15 days to several months to receive, which was difficult in regards to forecasting and determining demand. In order to fill the orders the vendors would often have to carry more inventories in order to meet the schedules with less time. This negatively affected the entire supply chain and the time needed to manufacture goods and their service levels.
Describe the critical information requirements for scheduling of airline services.
Service scheduling provides visibility for the members of the supply chain and enables coordination of goods. It is composed of three functions: flight service schedule, passenger load forecast, and service demand forecast. The flight service schedule is an application that is updated daily on flight schedules that include information such as menus and provisions specific for each different flight. The passenger load forecast was a daily update for passenger reservations so that the number of passengers could be better predicted. Lastly, the service demand forecast was used to give a condensed view of the passenger loads and the scheduled departures. It was used to predict the quantities needed to service a particular flight.
4. Discuss how e-gatematrix proposes to save AirCo money by taking over their services.
Valencia gave several different money-saving ideas. The first function e-gatematrix proposed improving was service scheduling. Valencia wanted more information sharing among the supply chain members, who would help the airline improve their forecasting for both services and passengers. The second function was equipment balancing, namely optimizing the use of the supply chain's equipment. He talked about improving AirCo's equipment and material waste, such as disposing of passenger blankets rather than cleaning them for re-use, and their design of separate bowls for use with breakfast and salads rather than using multi-purpose bowls. Valencia went on to explain the improvements he would like to see in AirCo's policy of a monthly rotation of the items on their menu; he points out that many perishable items have to be thrown out every time the menu arbitrarily changes.
He suggested using technological improvements in inventory management and also in the use of smarter resource planning based around the plane's galley load limitations. Finally, Valencia stressed that e-gatematrix would be able to send AirCo one invoice for all services provided, as opposed to sending hundreds of invoices in keeping with a cumbersome and senseless airline tradition.
Discuss how e-gatematrix's IT infrastructure differs from a single vendor enterprise information system.
E-gatematrix used applications from both SupplyTech and SAP as well as custom applications created from within. The major difference between their multi-vendor system and the single vendor system is the results e-gatematrix wanted: a scalable and flexible model that could grow and shrink with the business; interoperability with other airlines and suppliers; and most importantly, a minimal marginal cost of adding new airlines to their system. Traditional single vendor solutions can tend to be rigid and inflexible, and also run the risk of limited interoperability and smaller market share.
In your own words, provide your own assessment of the e-gatematrix solution to airline services. In particular, provide your assessment of the risks and benefits of e-gatematrix's new IT infrastructure.
Valencia makes some exceptionally good points: the airline business model has not changed much over the years, and the rationale behind most processes seems to be "well, we've always done it this way," rather than "because this is the best practice." He wants to be a catalyst for big changes in the industry.
The benefit of the e-gatematrix IT system is an improved functionality, automation, and information sharing platform, which gives the airline more operational agility and a better ability to make forecasts. The risks, however, can be huge. Crucially, airline systems are inflexible and intolerant of change—they are using cutting edge software that most of their potential clients cannot (or will not) adopt. Another big risk is that certain firms are contracted to certain software providers—for example if a certain airline works exclusively with SAP, they won't want to be seen cooperating with an SAP competitor and risk breach of contract for the benefit of being compatible with e-gatematrix.
Research and report on the current status and services of e-gatematrix.
E-gatematrix has been renamed egate-solutions. The company refers to itself as a "leading provider of passenger service planning and fulfillment solutions for the airline and railway industries based on an industry proven product portfolio". (egate-solutions.com/about) Since the case study, they have expanded into the rail industry as well. They offer many software products to aid their customers. IFX is software that allows a company to manage the complete on-board service process for the airline and rail industries. GP is software used for galley planning, ordering and scheduling. There are also TS, a cabin management and onboard retail technology, as well as Business intelligence and a centralized portal (central console) where all the company's relevant information is displayed. (egate-solutions.com/about)
"E-gatematrix aligned with Gate Gourmet in 2006 and introduced egate solutions in 2007 as a new gate group member. The company has over 25 airline customers and also has offices in US, Europe, and Australia. They recently acquired Abanco onboard retail Technology to improve customer focus. (EGate) E-gatematrix is registered under Holding AG ("gategroup") under land of Switzerland and a registered office in Kloten with a 1.92% dividend yield and net income of 19.1 million in 2013. (Gategroup holding)
This case is not only about supply chains and information systems, but also about outsourcing. More and more companies are faced with the question of whether to outsource some or all of their services. Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing, and provide some insights into the decision making process that a company must go through when facing the decision to outsource. Use other sources besides this case to formulate your answer. Be sure to cite your sources.
Outsourcing involves contracting a certain business process out to a third party who specializes in that particular process. There are both pros and cons to outsourcing, as well as important considerations to take into account before deciding whether or not to outsource. One advantage involves receiving expertise and guidance in a business process you may not be familiar with. By outsourcing, you are delegating a specific business process to third party who specialized in that process, whereas you may not have enough time to deal with it (Benefits of outsourcing). This allows you to focus on your core business processes while you delegate the support processes to some other company. Risk sharing is also another advantage. Outsourcing and delegating business responsibilities allows you to decrease your risk by handing some of it over to the third party; they are just as responsible for that business process as you are (unless your contract specifies otherwise). Other advantages include reducing operational and recruitment costs due to the fact you won't need to hire in house for your business process anymore; that responsibility now belongs to the third party. Finally, one interesting advantage is the time zone advantage. If you outsource overseas, you potentially can have a business functioning twenty-four seven (Benefits of outsourcing).
There are disadvantages as well, though. For example, there could be a lack of customer focus. Third parties outsource companies may be helping many other businesses, so your company may not be its top priority. This increases the risk of hurting your company's service level. Also, it could potentially increase your risk of exposing data to a third party such as payroll.
Outsourcing is an important decision and requires a lot of consideration before executing. Progressive entrepreneurs realize the unstoppable power of outsourcing to handle aspects of their business that are essential but simply don't make sense for them to deal with personally," says David Walsh, entrepreneur and author of Source Control, (Jackson, N). If you are struggling meeting your core business goals, it may be a good time to consider outsourcing. A company must also decide what to outsource Sometimes there are things you don't want to do but they are important to your core business (Jackson, N). Also it is important to find the right contractor and do plenty of research to make sure your third party is aligned with your business goals as well.
Master Data (1)
business objects which are agreed on and shared across the enterprise
Operational Data
(transactional data) data that is created while we operate. Ex. Purchase order, sales order
Purchase info Rec
link between raw materials and the vendors that we buy them from
What was the difference b/w NRG-C & NRG-D
o BOM changed
o Created customer
Delivery process
Create outbound
Pick and post
Receive payment
Post goods issue changes ownership
Inv. # and value goes down
Document flow
Check where we are the outbound delivery cycle
Green Light
enough stock to meet demand or no demand
Red light
Not enough stock
IMG: implementation management guide
o Taking software and tailoring it to your company
o Master data
Set up credit limit-went over it
Two things could have happened:
• Sales order was blocked-warning
• Sales order is not saved-error
What is the price called in SAP?
• Sell below costs because of discounts
To prevent: (last condition) minimum price so you can't go below cost
CBP Lab Twist
o Made you think you went below reorder point when you hadn't
o Ran mrp and didn't create purchase order
o SS is included in reorder point calculation
Known as Reorder Point (in SAP)
Stock levels
o Safety stock
o Lot size: between safety stock and reorder point
o Lead time: between reorder point and when you get it
o Doesn't fit the data pattern
o You don't just remove it. Assess whether it belongs there or not.
• What does the forecasting system test for in SAP
Trends in seasonality
• Ways that we assess the quality of a forecast
o Mean absolute deviation
o Visualization
Available to promise
knowing what is on the shelf, what has been promised and what is promiseable
What is E2open?
- Cloud-based software that allows all suppliers to interact electronically
- Operates in real time
o Increases visibility greatly, esp. important on a global scale.
- What is the cloud?
o The cloud, simply, refers to software and services that run on the Internet instead of your computer
- IaaS: Infrastructure as a service
o Creates the database and power behind the system
- PaaS: Platform as a service
o Creates ability for users to develop their own applications to meet their unique business needs
- SaaS: Software as a system
o Enables other users to pay for your process applications
o Able to host many suppliers on a single platform
o System can be altered to customer specs
E2open Three major customers
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Lufthansa Technik
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
o E2open helps them with order cycle, purchase orders, shipping information
o Monitor exceptions in processes that affect master schedule
• The biggest impact would be from the ability to monitor certain exceptions that may occur between business processes and determines the impact of these exceptions on the master schedule using "synchronized time-sequenced information.
o First product Boeing makes that is globally manufactured. All parts ship outside of the US to Washington for final assembly. Very important to be able to work with global partners in real time.
o E2open has cut their IT costs by 53% by replacing legacy IBM system
o Suppliers are more willing to to adopt E2Open because of it's ease of integration.
Lufthansa Technik
o World leader service provider of maintenance and repair for engines, aircraft, and other components
o E2open replaces their manual commitment notification system
o Allows for visibility through their road transportation and air transportation
• Align delivery schedules
E2open Poor market performance
- Stock value dropped 59% on September 10th and 11th, 2014
- Chief Sales Officer resigned and was replaced
- Fiscal year 2014 expectations were previously $89m to $91.5m
- Financial expectations were revised to $83-85 million for 2014
EBay's ERP Challenges
• More than 175 billion dollars are exchanged every year
• Management decisions have a strong effect on profits.
o CFO Describes EBay as a micro economy. Policy changes affect decisions made by both buyers and sellers like a government policy may affect the US economy.
• Data analysis for trends is very important, but current systems take weeks to analyze data and make conclusions about trends.
EBay SAP Solution with ERP
• EBay met SAP with four goals for their ERP management software
o WHAT- track metrics, forecast, and evaluate
o WHY- track causes of statistical anomalies
o WHAT IS LIKELY TO HAPPEN- Generate near-term, mid-term, and long-term forecasts
o WHAT IF- Run simulations to visualize the impact that decisions will have on the eBay economy.
• SAP is still working with EBay to accomplish their goals, with only the first task being accomplished.
o The "WHAT" stage has been implemented
• Data is analyzed and cleaned of redundancy and irrelevant points
• Seasonality trends are automatically detected and accounted for
• Trends and data signals are now found in real-time as opposed to after weeks of data analysis.
EBay Benefits
• Sales trends are detected in real-time.
• Merchants are notified of these trends to help them sell more products
• Advertising is tailored to take advantage of current trends
• Overall, merchants sell more products and EBay makes more money
GE History
General Electric Company was founded on April 15, 1982.
Headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut.
GE is a diversified technology and financial services company.
Once the most valuable company in the world.
GE Industrial Internet
Ge, AT&T, CISCO, IBM and Intel launched the Industrial Internet.
Industrial Internet is created in order to use big data to break down technology silos, improve machine to machine communication, and bring the physical and digital worlds closer together.
GE Application in Factories
New Battery plant in Schenectady, NY.
Sensors that are connected to the company's Industrial Internet and cloud computing system track ever step in the process of producing the batteries.
With iPads, employees are connected via Wi-Fi nodes to the Industrial Internet.
Signal is sent to the manufacturing plant if a part fails.
Can look back at historical data and see if the failure is linked to something in the plant.
GE Application in Train Transportation
Ge looks to more efficient locomotives with their new GE evolution series locomotive.
Data transmitted by sensors predicts and recognizes an impending problem, schedules a train for service, and gets a part ready to install.
GE's Trip Optimizer allowing the train to cruise at the most efficient speed.
GE's Yard Planner: all train and train yards are connected to allow yard planners to go through the location, destination, and classifications of the trains in order to accelerate their dispatch.
GE Application in Healthcare
Centricity 360: rapid communication and collaboration.
Emergency situation: Past history, data from vitals compiled and sent to various doctors who collaborate on treatment.
Follow-up: everything is updated for follow up appointment with primary physician.
Remote care can also be used.
GE Benefits in the Healthcare
Saving more lives and allows more people to get help.
Less mistakes, mistreatments, errors and stress.
Compiling data and analytics for more powerful decision making.
Hershey's History
○ Founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894
○ Headquarters: Pennsylvania
○ Roughly 13,000 employees around the world
○ Products sold in 60 countries
○ 80 brands
Hershey Prior to SAP
Using a legacy system
o Changed for Enterprise 21 in late 1996
● Goal: change from a mainframe-based network to a client-server one and better coordinate deliveries to retailers
Hershey-Why SAP
o Switch to new system in April 1999
o Outsourced the implementation to 3 software vendors
● SAP: purchasing, material management, finance, warehousing, order processing, billing
● Manugistics: transport management, production, forecasting, scheduling
● Siebel: customer relationship management, track the effectiveness of marketing through pricing promotions
Implementing ERP
○ Hershey began implementing the new ERP system in April of 1999
○ Used a big bang approach in July of 1999 to implement Manugistics and Siebel
○ Delivery problem
○ Due to not being able to deliver product
● Stock prices dropped
● Loss of $150 million in sales
Common Mistakes
○ Did train all the employees properly
○ Did not have a strong senior governance body
○ Did not test all the modules before migrating to new system
Getting Back on Track
○ Hired CIO
○ Trained all employees
Effects of SAP
○ New Distribution center- Reduced cycle times in half
○ SAP LoadRunner in Mexico- Let Hershey test processes before they actually implement. Also Revealed performance impediments before they would take place
Supply Chain Transformation
○ Main Goals- enhance manufacturing, sourcing and customer service capabilities
○ Three Stages-
1.) Increase manufacturing by reducing production lines,
2.) Outsource production of low value added items
3.) Construct cost effective production facility in Monterrey
Transitioning Systems
• Streamlined use of SAP
• Connected Hershey's Mexico in one system
• Partnership with Accenture
Implementation of Six Sigma
• Perfected their process to just 3.4 defects per million
• Cut labor costs, improve productivity
• GENCO, finished goods warehouse for efficiency
- Value stream map
- Robot warehouse pickers
Making Kisses
• Proprietary system used with retailers to know how much and when goods are needed
• Raw ingredients/cocoa bean process/milling/refining- economies of scale
• Shaping and packaging- all automated
• Economies of scope: different flavors for one type instead of multiple types
New Kiss Investment
• $300 million warehouse for 24 hr Kisses
• 70 million kisses per day
• Large scale customized machinery
• New factory utilizing economies of scale to the max
• Planned to contribute $1 Million to economy around PA area
• McDonalds founded in 1940 by Richard and Maurice McDonald in San Bernardino California
• 1954 Ray Kroc approaches the McDonald brothers about expanding their franchise, as a result he establishes McDonald's Corporation. In five years he has opened over 100 locations around the united states
• McDonalds is currently in 118 countries with over 35,000 restaurants
• McDonalds employees more than 1.7 million people and servers over 68 million people daily
• 80% of their restaurants are owned and operated by franchisees.
• McDonalds prioritizes Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) a management system in which food safety is held to the highest standard
• McDonalds currently uses Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) to keep track of daily business operations
• McDonalds uses the Decision Support System (DSS) to more accurately predict demands
• Lastly McDonalds uses a point of sales system to maximize the customer experience, by keeping errors low.
Samsung Supply Chain
• In ordered to avoid major setbacks for political, environmental or economic issues Samsung has suppliers located in many different places around the world.
• Samsung's main suppliers are SEC (Samsung Electronics Corporation) and SDC (Samsung Display Corporation).
• Samsung operates in Asia, Europe and America.
Samsung Manufacturers and Distribution
• Samsung uses two Information Systems technologies, SAP R/3 and Perfect Commerce.
o SAP helps in the early stages of implementing the defect free strategy - define and measure - providing a quick report of inventory levels to detect shortages/ surpluses.
o Perfect Commerce manages the procurement process and some sourcing.
Samsung Six Sigma
• Samsung introduced Six Sigma to increase efficiency and lean operations in their Supply Chain.
• Six Sigma is a method which utilizes statistical and quality improvement practices to reach a desired target.
• Main goal is to lower costs and minimize the number of defective items, while improving the system process so it can shorten the business cycle time.
• The Three Principles of Six Sigma are:
o Customer satisfaction
o Identify and support high return processes, identify and fix bad performers
o Teams Work - collaboration through information sharing