42 terms

PsychHB - Drugs and Alcohol

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drug
chemical substance that can alter structure and function of body
psychoactive drug
drug that alters behavior, thought, or perceptions; affects nervous system; most cross the blood-brain barrier
dopamine
neurotransmitter in the brain that causes pleasure; many drugs cause a huge increase in its production
blood-brain barrier
system that keeps harmful substances from entering the brain
neurotransmitters
chemicals in the brain that can affect behavior and thoughts
tolerance
requiring more of a substance to achieve the same effect
withdrawal
physical response that happens when one does not take a drug they are addicted to
addiction/substance dependence
uncontrollable, compulsive drug seeking and use, even in the face of negative health and social consequences
substance abuse
the continued use of a drug despite social, legal, or health problems; doesn't require person to be addicted
reward pathway
area of the brain that, when stimulated, leads the person to want to repeat a behavior (e.g., eating, drinking, sex, nurturing, taking drugs)
depressants
drugs that relax and calm a user, induce sleep at higher doses, and depress brain activity
ethanol
the active ingredient in alcohol
factors that affect absorption of alcohol
food consumption, body weight/build, gender
alcoholism
means the same as alcohol addiction to alcohol dependence
alcohol addiction
means the same as alcohol dependence or alcoholism
alcohol dependence
means the same as addiction to alcohol or alcoholism
delirium tremens (DTs)
during alcohol withdrawal, severe confusion and physical shaking
symptoms of alcohol withdrawal
severe cravings, delirium tremens (DTs)
alcohol-related diseases
heart disease, mouth and throat cancer, cirrhosis, hepatitis
opiates
drugs that derive from the opium poppy, act as pain killers, occupy endorphin receptors, cause euphoria; also known as narcotics
endorphins
chemicals in the brain that are the body's natural pain relievers; opiates mimic their effects
examples of natural opiates
opium, morphine, codeine
examples of semi-synthetic opiates
heroin, OxyContin, Vicodin
how heroin is used
injected, snorted, smoked
heroin street names
H, smack, junk
"cutting" a drug
mixing in other substances to reduce a drugs purity
short-term effects of heroin
euphoria, flushing of skin
long-term effects of heroin
addiction, collapsed veins, organ damage
stimulants
drugs that cause an elevation in mood, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate; reduce fatigue and appetite
caffeine
drug found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, some nuts, some medicines
people most likely to smoke
people aged 18-44; men; people with less education; American Indians/Alaskans; people living in poverty
nicotine
active ingredient in tobacco
forms of tobacco
"dip," chewing tobacco, cigarettes, cigars, pipes
nicotine replacement therapy
things like nicotine gum, lozenges, and patch that supply nicotine without the cancer causing chemicals; help smokers quit
cocaine
drug that comes from the coca plant; first made in mid-1800s; can lead to heart disease and a damaged septum
street names for cocaine
blow, snow, nose candy
amphetamines
stimulants that can cause altered thoughts such as paranoia, and schizophrenia-like symptoms; in the past were used as appetite supressants
methamphetamine
similar to amphetamines, but stronger; often made in home labs;
street names for methamaphetamine
speed, ice, meth, crystal meth
meth mouth
the decaying of teeth due to decreased saliva production in methamphetamine users
hemp plant
where marijuana comes from
THC
active ingredient in marijuana
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