EMT Ch 8 Test

When you place your finger in an infant's palm, she grasps it with her fingers. This is an example of which reflex?

A) Sucking

B) Palmar

C) Rooting

D) Moro
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Terms in this set (26)
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The sucking reflex causes an infant to begin sucking when his lips are touched.

B) CORRECT. The palmar reflex in an infant causes her to grasp an object placed into her palm.

C) INCORRECT. When an infant turns his head to the side when a cheek is touched, it is known as the rooting reflex.

D) INCORRECT. Moro reflex causes an infant, when startled, to throw her arms out, spread her fingers, and grab with her fingers and arms.

Page Ref: 177
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term scaffolding is used to describe the process of building additional knowledge onto what one already knows.

B) CORRECT. Bonding is the sense that all of the infant's needs will be met, such as receiving food when hungry and comfort when upset.

C) INCORRECT. With regard to infant development, trust refers to having a stable and predictable environment.

D) INCORRECT. The Moro reflex occurs when an infant is surprised or frightened.

Page Ref: 178
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The rooting reflex causes the infant to turn his head when his cheek is touched.

B) INCORRECT. There is no defined reaction called the startle reflex.

C) CORRECT. The Moro reflex causes a startled infant to throw his arms out, spread his fingers, and grab with his arms and fingers.

D) INCORRECT. There is no such reaction called the scaffolding reflex.

Page Ref: 177
A 26-month-old toddler is reported to have fallen and lacerated his chin. His mother did not witness the fall. As you proceed through your assessment, your partner reports that she's concerned about his heart rate, which she measures as 64. She's checked it twice. Your knowledge of normal vital signs for a patient this age suggests that his pulse rate is:

A) too slow.

B) too fast.

C) within normal range.

D) not reliable.
Explanation: A) CORRECT. A toddler (12 to 36 months) normally has a heart rate in the range of 80 to 130 per minute. Anything below 80 should be a concern and prompt further investigation of the patient's condition.

B) INCORRECT. A heart rate of 64 is not too fast for a toddler.

C) INCORRECT. For a healthy toddler, a pulse rate of 64 would not fall into the normal range.

D) INCORRECT. When taken appropriately, the pulse of a toddler should be considered reliable enough to investigate his condition further if the rate is not within normal range.

Page Ref: 179
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Children are usually toilet-trained before the beginning of the preschool stage.

B) INCORRECT. Infants are not capable of being toilet-trained.

C) CORRECT. The toddler stage is when toilet-training generally begins.

D) INCORRECT. Children are usually toilet-trained long before school age.

Page Ref: 179
Which of the following would be a normal set of vitals for a 4-year-old male patient?

A) Heart rate 140/minute, respiratory rate 30/minute, and systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg

B) Heart rate 100/minute, respiratory rate 34/minute, and systolic blood pressure of 100 mmHg

C) Heart rate 60/minute, respiratory rate 24/minute, and systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg

D) Heart rate 110/minute, respiratory rate 24/minute, and systolic blood pressure of 80 mmHg
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The heart rate is too fast and systolic pressure is too low for a normal 4-year-old.

B) INCORRECT. The respiratory rate is too rapid for a normal toddler.

C) INCORRECT. The heart rate is too slow for a normal, healthy 4-year-old.

D) CORRECT. Normal vital signs for a toddler would be a heart rate between 80 and 130, a respiratory rate between 20 and 30 per minute, and a systolic pressure between 70 and 100 mmHg.

Page Ref: 179
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The term transitional is not used to describe the movement between childhood and adulthood.

B) INCORRECT. The transition from childhood to adulthood is not called young adult.

C) CORRECT. The transition from childhood to adulthood is known as adolescence.

D) INCORRECT. Early adulthood does not describe the transition between childhood and adulthood.

Page Ref: 181
Explanation: A) INCORRECT. When an individual is in preschool they are still growing and not in peak physical condition.

B) INCORRECT. An adolescence undergoes a rapid growth spurt, but they are not in peak physical condition yet.

C) CORRECT. During early adulthood an individual is in peak physical condition, specifically between nineteen and twenty-six years of age.

D) INCORRECT. By middle adulthood the body has begun to slow down and is no longer in peak physical condition.

Page Ref: 181
) Middle adulthood is the stage of life from ________ to ________ years. A) 35; 55 B) 35; 65 C) 41; 60 D) 31; 60Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Middle adulthood does not begin at 35. B) INCORRECT. A person who is over 61-years-old is considered to be in the late adulthood stage. C) CORRECT. Middle adulthood is considered to be between 41 and 60 years. D) INCORRECT. 31-years-old is far too young to be considered middle adulthood. Page Ref: 183Which of the following stages is commonly referred to as "the twilight years"? A) Middle adulthood B) Late adulthood C) Adolescence D) Early adulthoodExplanation: A) INCORRECT. Middle adulthood is usually defined by the "midlife crisis" stage. B) CORRECT. Late adulthood is commonly referred to as "the twilight years." C) INCORRECT. Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood, and is not connected to "the twilight years." D) INCORRECT. Early adulthood is not associated with the term "twilight years." Page Ref: 184Which of the following is NOT a common psychosocial challenge of late adulthood? A) Self-destructive behaviors B) Concern about death and dying C) Financial burdens D) Issues of self-worthExplanation: A) CORRECT. Late adulthood is not usually associated with self-destructive behaviors. B) INCORRECT. It is common for those in late adulthood to have concerns about death and dying. C) INCORRECT. Financial burdens can weigh heavily on people in the late adulthood stage due to decreased incomes and rising expenses. D) INCORRECT. Those in late adulthood tend to struggle with self-worth, concerned that they are not producing quality work that benefits themselves and others. Page Ref: 184-185Which of the following is the term used to describe an infant's reaction to his environment? A) Attitude B) Bonding C) Personality D) TemperamentExplanation: A) INCORRECT. Attitude is a consistent way of thinking or feeling about a person or thing. B) INCORRECT. Bonding is the infant's sense that all of her needs will be met. C) INCORRECT. The characteristics or qualities that form a person's character is called personality. D) CORRECT. Temperament refers to an infant's reaction to his environment. Page Ref: 178Patients in late adulthood are likely to face which of the following challenges? A) Self-worth B) Hygiene C) Tax burden D) All of the aboveExplanation: A) CORRECT. Patients in late adulthood may be concerned about their value to those around them, leading to questions of self-worth. B) INCORRECT. Hygiene is not necessarily a challenge for patients in late adulthood. C) INCORRECT. Tax burdens tend not to be related to a specific stage of life. D) INCORRECT. One of the answers provided is correct. Page Ref: 184-185Patients in which age group tend to be very concerned with body image? A) School age B) Adolescence C) Middle adulthood D) Early adulthoodExplanation: A) INCORRECT. School-age children tend not to focus on body images. B) CORRECT. Body image is a great concern for adolescents. C) INCORRECT. Body image is far less important to those in middle adulthood. D) INCORRECT. Those in early adulthood move away from the focus on body image. Page Ref: 182What is the stage of development where there are several physiological and psychosocial changes, second only to infancy or adolescence? A) Late adulthood B) Middle adulthood C) Toddler D) Preschool ageExplanation: A) CORRECT. Late adulthood, the stage often referred to as the "twilight years," brings about several physiological and psychosocial changes, second only to those seen during infancy or adolescence. B) INCORRECT. Middle adulthood does not have nearly the physiological and psychosocial changes found in infancy and adolescence. C) INCORRECT. There are few physiological and psychosocial changes in the toddler stage. D) INCORRECT. Those of preschool age tend not to have notable physiological or psychosocial changes. Page Ref: 184You are assessing a 6-month-old female patient who, according to the parents, is not acting normally. At this stage of development, the patient should be able to do which of the following? A) Sit alone on the floor B) Sit upright in a high chair C) Sleep D) Respond to the word "no"Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Sitting alone on the floor is the ability of an 8-month-old and older. B) CORRECT. A 6-month-old should be able to make one-syllable sounds and sit upright in a high chair. C) INCORRECT. Sleeping is an ability that all infants have, regardless of development stages. D) INCORRECT. A child can usually begin responding to the word "no" in the eighth month. Page Ref: 177You are assessing a female patient with depression. She tells you that her psychologist said that she is dealing with "empty-nest syndrome." What age group is this associated with? A) Middle adulthood B) Middle-aged adulthood C) Late adulthood D) Early adulthoodExplanation: A) CORRECT. "Empty-nest syndrome" is a characteristic of someone in the middle adulthood stage of life. B) INCORRECT. Middle-aged adulthood does not refer to an accepted life stage. C) INCORRECT. Those in late adulthood are generally far past the "empty nest" stage. D) INCORRECT. People in the early adulthood stage are too young to experience "empty-nest syndrome." Page Ref: 183In which age group do you anticipate seeing patients who have less efficient cardiovascular systems and a reduction of previous blood volume? A) Infancy B) Late adulthood C) Early adulthood D) Middle adulthoodExplanation: A) INCORRECT. Infants do not suffer from less efficient cardiovascular systems or a reduction in blood volume. B) CORRECT. In the late adulthood stage, the cardiovascular system becomes less efficient and the volume of blood decreases. C) INCORRECT. Early adulthood is usually when a person is in optimal health, with all systems functioning efficiently. D) INCORRECT. Those in middle adulthood generally still have efficient cardiovascular systems. Page Ref: 184You are assessing a 12-year-old male patient who has been involved in a bicycle accident. This patient would be classified as being in which stage of life? A) Middle school age B) School age C) Adolescent D) Junior school ageExplanation: A) INCORRECT. Middle school age is not an accepted stage of life. B) CORRECT. Any patient between the ages of 6 and 12 years old is considered to be school age. C) INCORRECT. Adolescence doesn't begin until the age of 13. D) INCORRECT. There is no defined stage of life called junior school age. Page Ref: 180You have been dispatched to a shopping mall to assess a 1-month-old female patient that tumbled out of her stroller while her mother was shopping. Upon your arrival, the baby is awake, alert, and happily smiling and cooing at her mom. The mother reports that the child did not appear to suffer any injuries as a result of the fall. As you assess the patient and place your finger in her hand, she grasps it tightly. This is known as the: A) sucking reflex. B) Moro reflex. C) palmar reflex. D) rooting reflex.Explanation: A) INCORRECT. The sucking reflex is related to feeding and the child will typically start sucking when her lips are touched. B) INCORRECT. In the Moro reflex, the child will throw out her arms and spread her fingers when startled. C) CORRECT. In the palmar reflex, the child will grasp your finger in her palm when sensed. D) INCORRECT. The rooting reflex will cause the infant to turn her head toward a stimulus on her cheek. Page Ref: 177Your 4-month-old patient is reported to be irritable and lethargic after feeding poorly for two days. One method for assessing the patient's level of hydration is to gently palpate the soft spots on the surface of the skull. These soft spots are also known as the: A) fontanelles. B) acromion process. C) mandibles. D) carpals.Explanation: A) CORRECT. The bones at the top of the skull are not fused at birth; the "soft spot" where these bones meet is called a fontanelle. You can often get a good idea of a child's state of hydration by gently palpating the area. B) INCORRECT. The acromion process is the highest point on the shoulder blade. C) INCORRECT. The lower jaw is called the mandible. D) INCORRECT. The carpals are the bones of the wrist. Page Ref: 177You have been called to a private residence where a 16-year-old female patient is reported by her parents to be "acting strangely" and possibly "on something." Upon your arrival, the patient is locked in her bedroom refusing to open the door. The patient refuses to speak to you and will only come out if her best friend is present. Your knowledge of life-span development indicates that the following characteristics are common with a patient of this age. A) Depression and suicide B) Preoccupation with body image C) Self-destructive behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol, and drug use D) All of the aboveExplanation: A) INCORRECT. Depression and suicide can be common among adolescents, along with several other psychosocial traits of this life stage. B) INCORRECT. Adolescents tend to be very focused on body image, but this isn't the only answer that may apply. C) INCORRECT. Self-destructive behaviors are very common among adolescents, but there are other psychosocial attributes as well. D) CORRECT. Adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years share many of the same psychosocial characteristics and challenges. Body image is a great concern at this point in life, and eating disorders can be common, especially among girls. It also is a time when self-destructive behaviors begin, such as use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and unsafe driving. Depression and suicide are alarmingly common in this age group. Page Ref: 18225) Your 89-year-old male patient has called for help because he almost passed out after bringing in his garbage cans from the curb. The patient lives alone and says that he became panicked when he started feeling so lightheaded and dizzy. Patients in this age group often undergo all of the following changes to their health, except: A) blood volume decreases. B) increased metabolism. C) sleep-wake cycle disrupted. D) deterioration of respiratory system.Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Patients in late adulthood (61 years and older) can experience a number of physical changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may become less efficient with an overall decrease in blood volume. B) CORRECT. Changes in the endocrine system result in decreased metabolism. C) INCORRECT. Sleep-wake cycles are often disrupted at this age, causing sleep problems. D) INCORRECT. The respiratory systems of those in late adulthood can decline, making them more susceptible to respiratory disorders. Page Ref: 184You are caring for a 4-month-old male patient who is reported to have vomited five times today. His parents describe no other associated symptoms or complaints. The patient is lying on the couch with a pacifier in his mouth, smiling at you. Developmentally, you would expect a patient of this age to be able to: A) sit up without assistance. B) drool without swallowing. C) say the word "no." D) have attachment anxiety or fear strangers.Explanation: A) INCORRECT. Not until the sixth month and later will children be able to sit up. B) CORRECT. Most patients in this age range can drool without swallowing. C) INCORRECT. Speaking doesn't generally begin until after the sixth month. D) INCORRECT. A 4-month-old is too young to have developed a fear of strangers. Page Ref: 177