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182 terms

Pathology

Pathology NBE
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Abatement
decrease in, such as in pain
Abrasion
An excoriation, a circumscribed removal of the epidermis of skin or mucous membran
Abscess
a circumscribed collection of pus
Acapnia
a marked decrease in blood cardon dioxide content
Acidosis
condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood
Acquired Disease
a disease which is not congenital, but has developed since birth
Acute
a disease or ailment which is sharp and of short course
Adenoma
a neoplasm formed bu glandular epithelium
Alkalosis
condition in which there is an excessiver proportion of alkali in the blood
Alzeheimer's Disease
a pre-senile dementia occurring usually in persons over 60 years of age; thought to be associated with neurofibril degeneration
Amelia
congenital absence of the extremities
Anemia
a decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin or both
Anasarca
generalized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue
Aneurysm
blood-filled saclike dilation of the wall of an artery
Aplasia
congenital absence of an organ or other part. In hematology, incolmplete or defective development or a cessation of regeneration
Angioma
a swelling or tumor sue to dilation of the blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymphatics (lymphangioma
Anoxia
deficient blood oxygen supplies to tissues
Ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
Arteritis
imflammation, usually of a chronic progressive character, involving an artery or arteries
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
Asphyxia
loss of conciousness from deficient oxygen
Atherosclerosis
arteriorsclerosis or hardening of the arter walls characterized by lipid deposits in tunica intima
Atrophy
wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of a part
Autopsy
a postmortem examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition
Avulsion
a tearing away
Bilirubin
the red pigment in the bile
Biliverdin
the green pigment in the bile
Brain Purge
pre-embalming purge as a result of a fracture of the skull, a surgical procedure in the cranial cavity or a trauma. It is possible for gas (a type of purge) to build up in the cranium and travel along the nerve routes to distend such tissues as the eyelids
Cachexia
a general state of ill-health, associated with emaciation
Carcinoma
general term for a malignant tumor
Carbuncle
a phlegmonour inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissues
Cavitation
formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
Cellular Degeneration
the deterioration of an organ or cell structure which may include swelling
Cellular Infliltration
a cellular reaction to injury which may include pigmentation, calcification, and gout
Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke)
a blow; hence a sudden attack, as a sunstroke, a paralytic or apoplectic stroke or apoplexy
Chancre
primary lesion, initial clerosis, syphlitic sore, the first manifestation of sypilis
Cholecystitis
inflammation of the gallbladder
Chronic
a disease of slow progress and long continuance
Cirrhosis
a degeneration or atrophy of the parenchyma cells of an organwithhypertrophy of the interstitial connective tissue
Colitis
inflammation of the mucous membran of the colon
Communicable
any disease which is transmitted by infection of contagious directly or through the agency of a vector
Concussion
an injury of a soft structure, as the brian, resulting froma blow or violent shaking
Congenital Disease
a disease that begins before birth and is evident at the time of birth
Contusion
a bruise, a contused wound
Cretinism
a congenital condition due to hypothyroidism resulting in mental retardation
Cryptorchism (Cryptorchidism)
condition is which the descent of a testis into the scrotum is arrested at some point in the normal path
Cyanosis
bluish appearance of the skin from deficient oxygenation of the blood
Cyst
an abnormal sac containing gas, fluid, or a semi-solid material
Cystitis
inflammation of a bladder, especially the urinary bladder
Decomposition
chemical reaction involving breaking of chemical bonds; forms two ro more smaller molecule compounds from larger molecule compounds
Deficiency
Disease due to lack of dietary or metabolic substance
Diabetes
a term used to designate two diseases, diabetes insipidum and diabetes mellitus, each having the symptom of polyuria in common
Diagnosis
the determination of the nature of a disease
Diverticulosis
the presence of a number of diverticula of the intestine
Dry Gangrene (Ischemic Necrosis)
condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries but not the veins are obstructed (e.g., ischemic necrosis)
Dysplasia
an abnormal tissue development
Dystrophy
faulty nutrition
Ecchymosis
a purplish patch caused by extravasation of blood into the skin; a black-and-blue spot
Ectopic
displaced; not in the normal place for example, extrauterine pregnancy
Edema (Dropsy)
excessive fluid in the tissues
Emaciation
extreme loss of flesh, a growing lean
Embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstream
Encephalitis
inflammation of the brain
Endemic
denotes a disease which prevails more or less continuously in a given region
Endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium, or lining membrane of the heart. It may involve only the membran covering the valves or the general lining of the chambers of the heart
Endocervicitis
inflammation of the mucouos membrane of the cervix uteri
Endometriosis
the ectopic occurrence of endometrial tissue or its diffuse inplantation or infiltration in the myometrium
Empyema
pus in the pleural cavity
Enteritis
inflammation of the intestine
Epidemic
denoting a disease attacking, nearly simultaneously, a considerable number of people in a communit, not indigenous or continuously present but introduced from without
Epistaxis
nosebleed
Esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
Etiology
the doctrine of causes, specifically of the cause of disease
Exacerbation
a sudden icrease in teh severity of a disease
Exudate
fluid or cellular debris exuding from blood vessels and deposited in tissues or tissue surfaces; usually a result of inflammation
Febrile
relating to fever, feverish, pyretic
Fibroma
an encapsulated tumor composed mainly of fibrous connective tissue; fibroid, tumor, inoma
Furnuncle
an abscess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle
Gangrene
a form of necrosis combined with putrefaction
Gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
Gingivitis
inflammation of the gingival tissue
Glomerulonephritis
parenchymatous nephritis with pronounced lesions in teh glomeruli
Goiter
a chronic enlargement of the thyroid gland, not due to a neoplasm
Gross Pathology
study of changes in structure of the body that are readily seen with the unaided eye as a result of disease
Hematemesis
vomiting of blood
Hematoma
a blood-cyst, hematocyst; a tumor containing enfussed blood
Hematuria
the passage of blood in the urine
Hemoptysis
bleeding from the lungs or bronchial tubes
Hemophilia
an inherited hemorrhagic disease characterized by a tendency to excessive and somtimes spontaneous bleeding
Hemorrhage
bleeding, a flow of blood, especially if it is very profuse
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
Hydrocele
a collection of serous fluid in a sacculated cavity
Hydronephrosis
dilation of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys in consequence of obstruction of the flow of urine
Hydropericardium
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the paricadial sac
Hydrtothorax
a non-inflammatory effusion of serous fluid in the pleural cavity
Hyperemia
the presence of an icreased amount of blood in a part; congestion
Hypertrophy
increased size of a part form an increase in size of the cell
Hypoplasia
defective formation, incompletes development of a part
Iatrogenic
denoting a disease that is caused by the medical profession
Idiopathic
spontaneous orgin of a disease, without a recognizable cause
Inclusions
any foreign or heterogeneous substance contained in a cell or in any tissue or organ that was not introduced as a result of trauma
Infarction
the formation of an area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area
Infestation
harboring of animal parasites in microscopicform, such as ectoparasites and and anthropod endorparasites
Inflitration
the process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present
Inflammation
a morbid change or series of reactions produced in the tissues by an irritant
Intoxication
state of being intoxicated, especially of being poisoned by a drug of toxic substance
Ischemia
local anemia; temporary lack of blood supply to an area
Jaundice
a yellowish staining of the integuments and deeper tissues and the excretions with bile pigments
Laceration
a tear or torn wound
Lesion
a wound or injury
Liver
the major organ for detoxification and production of bile
Leucocytosis
strictly, an increase in teh presence of white blood cells in the blood
Leukemia
a disorder in which the normal growth and development of white blood cells is out of control
Leukopenia
the opposite of leukemia in which there is abnormally low white blood cell count
Lipoma
a tumor coposed of fatty tissue
Lymphoma
a tumor composed of lymphoid tissues
Malformation (Anomaly)
a defect or deformity
Medicolegal (Forensic) Pathology
study of disease to ascertain cause and manner of death
Melanoma
a malignant pigmented mole
Melena
melenemesic, black vomit
Metaplasia
replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normall found there
Meningitis
inflammation of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord
Metastasis
the spread of tumor cells from one part of the body to another by blood or lymph
Microscopic Pathology (Histopathology)
stude of microscopic changes that cells, tissues and organs undergo as a result of disease
Moist (Wet) Gangrene
necrotic tissues that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage
Morbidity Rate
the ratio of sick to well in a community
Mortality Rate
the ratio of the number of deaths to the total population
Multiple Sclerosis
a chronic disease of the nervous system characterized by remissions and relapses and by the presence of patches of demyelination associated with sclerosis or hardening, scattered diffusely throughout the gray and white matter of the brian stem and spinal cord
Myelitis
inflammation of the muscular walls of the heart
Necrosis
Local death the death of more or less extensive groups of cell
Neoplasm
a new growth, tumor
Nephrolithiasis
renal claculus or gravel
Nosocomial
infrection acquired in a hospital
Oliguria
diminished amount of urine production
Osteomalacia
a disease marked by softening of the bones due to fault calcification in adulthood
Osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone and bone marrow
Oophoritis
inflammation of an ovary
Osteoma
atumor formed of bone. It may occure as an overgrowth of or outgrowth from bone, but consituting an independenttumor
Osteoporosis
a disease of bone marked by increased from widening of the Haverisan canals and softness from absorption of the calcareous material
Osteosarcoma
a mixed osteoma and sarcoma; a bony tumor containing many imperfectly differentiated, vegetative, or embryonic cells
Pandemic
noting a disease affecting or attacking all, or a large proportion of, the population of a regionl; extensively epidemic
Papilloma
a circumscribed overgrowth or hypertrophy of the papillae- of a cutaneous or mucous surface
Parkinson's Disease
paralysis agitans
Pathogenesis
the process of production and development of a lesion
Patholicical Anatomy
study of structural changes in the body caused by disease
Peptic Ulcer
an ulcer of the mucous membrane of the stomach ro duodenum, caused by the haction of highly acid gastric juice
Pericarditis
inflammation of th pericardium, the membrance covering the heart and beginning of the great cessels
Peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum, or linign of the abdominal cavity
Petechia
a small hemorrhagin spot about the size of a pinhead due to a leakage from a capillary
Pharyngitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the pharynx
Phlebitis
inflammation of a vein
Phocomelia
congenital condition in which the proximal portions of the limbs are poorly developed or absent
Pleurisy (Pleauritis)
inflammation of the pleura, pleauritis
Polycythemia Vera
an increase in total red blood cell mass
Pneumoconiosis
general term used to denote any prolonged inhalation of mineral dust
Pneumonia
infection of the lungs
Prognosis
the foretelling of the probable course of a disease; a forecast of the outcome of a disease
Purge
to cause a copious evacuation from body oripices
Purpura
an affection characterized by hemorrhage into the skine
Pustule
a small circumscribed elevation on teh skin, containing pus
Pyelitis
inflammation of teh pelvis of the kidney
Recurrent Disease
returned, noting symptoms of lesions reappearsing after an intermission of remission
Remission
a lessening in severity; a temporary abatement of teh symptoms of a disease
Renal Caliculi
kidney stones
Repair
physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by the growth of healthy new cells, not necessarily the same type or by surgery
Rhinitis
inflammation of teh nasal mucous membran
Rickets
a disease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of citamin D resulting in defective bone growth
Salpingitis
inflammation of teh fallopian tube, or of the eustachian tube
Sinusitis
inflammation of the sinus cavities
Spina Bifida
a limited defect in the spinal column, consisting in absence of the vertebral arches through which the spinal membranes, with or without spinal cord tissue, protrude
Stenosis
a narrowing of any canal, a stricturel especially a narrowing of one of the cardiac valves
Suppuration
the formation of pus
Surgical Pathology
study of tissues specimens excised surgically in a major or minor operation
Syndrome
a concurrence of symptoms
Thrombosis
the formation of a clot in a blood vessel
Ulcer
a lesion of cutaneous or mucous surace, caused by molecular disintergration of the superficial part, attended usually by more or less suppuration (pus)
Uremia
an excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood
Ureteritis
relating to one or borth ureters
Urethritis
inflammation of teh urethra
Vaginitis
inflammation of the vagina, copitis
Valvular Insufficiency (Incompetence)
failure of a heart valve to close tightly, thuse allowing regurgitation of blood
Vesicle
a small circumscribed elevation on the skin, containing nonpurulent fluid