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Jacob Burkhardt

Nineteenth-century historian who formulated the concept that the Renaissance was a "rebirth" or "resurgence" of classical humanism.


the revival of learning and culture

civic humanism

humanism with the added belief that one must be an active and contributing member to one's society


Different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers


rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy by 1300

Francesco petrarch

"father of humanism"


A government where the ruler has unlimited power


The old rich, the nobles, and merchants who traditionally ruled the city of Florence

popolo Grosso

"new rich" (fat people) merchant class, capitalists and bankers, challenged the old rich for political power in Florance

middle- burgher

citizen of a town, middle class of Florence

popolo Minuto

lower class, poor people of Florence

ciompi revolt

in 1387 the popolo minuto (poor) rebelled in Florence. They ruled for next 4 years until Cosimo de' Medici

cosimo medici

controled Florence was a member of a wealthy family who ran the city-state government


ruling council in Florence, often controlled by the Medicis


mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states


a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements

studia humanitatis

humanists advocated the it, a liberal art's program of study that embraced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy.

Dante Alighieri

Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy.

Christine de pisan

considered to be the first feminist, wrote The Treasure of the City of Ladies also humanist


Philosophy of Plato that posits preexistent Ideal Forms of which all earthly things are imperfect models

lorenzo valla

(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.

Characteristics of renaissance art

depth; linear; atmospheric; not necessarily religious, earthly themes and humans; geometrically precise and mathematically accurate; more emotion; contraposto posture, in which the subject is shifting his or her balance.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect


(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.


This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling

Niccolo Machiavelli

(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."


The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.

Northern Renaissance

A religious art movement during the renaissance era

printing press

A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Presses using movable type first appeared in Europe in about 1450.

desiderius erasmus

Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation. he wrote The Praise of Folly, and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)

Thomas more

He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)

Prince Henry the navigator

This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators

Bartholomew Dias

he was an early Portuguese explorer who traveled down the coast of Africa in search of a water route to Asia. He managed to round the southern tip of Africa in 1488, now the Cape of Good Hope.

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route.

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

Hernan Cortes

Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain.

Francisco Pizzaro

Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca's

Bartolome de las casa

First bishop in southern Mexico. Devoted himself to the conversion of the native peoples to Christianity, and protecting them from exploitation.


spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain


plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the catholic Church in Spanish America


a spanish born spainiard living in the new worlds


People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.


one-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas


a system in which spanish monarchs gave land to colonist. These landowners were granted the right to force Indians living there to work the land


required adult male Indians to work a certain number of days to further Spanish economic enterprise in the New World, succeded ecomienda

Debt Peonage

condition of sharecroppers who could not pay off their debts and therefore could not leave the property they worked


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