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General Anatomy & Thorax for Quiz 1 Anatomy Lecture
Directional terms, anatomical planes, anatomical divisions, basic tissue categories, connective tissue, and muscles
Terms in this set (347)
What are the three basic aspects of tissue and organs that we are concerned with?
Form, Structure, and Disposition
What are the three basic divisions of anatomy?
Gross (Macroscopic), Microscopic, Developmental
Which division of anatomy deals with the study of organs, parts, and systems of the body with unaided/naked eyes?
Gross/ Macroscopic Anatomy
Which division of anatomy is concerned with the organs and their location in part/region of the body? (i.e. their relationship with one another)
Regional Topographical Anatomy
Which division of anatomy deals with the relation between form/structure and function?
Which division of anatomy deals with the study of the organs that form a system of the animal body?
What defines Applied/Clinical Anatomy?
The clinical practice of anatomical knowledge
i.e. diagnosis, surgery, radiography, etc.
What are the two subdivisions of Clinical Anatomy?
Radiological and Surgical
Imaging techniques are a component derived from which division of anatomy?
Taxonomy is a component derived from which division of anatomy?
Just below the first set of mammary glands marks the cranial boundary of what abdominal anatomical region?
Cranial abdominal region
What are the three divisions of the Abdominal region?
Cranial, Middle, Caudal
Where is the costal arch located?
Located within both the thoracic region and cranial abdominal region, using the xiphoid process/cartilage as the cranial marker and the ribs as lateral boundaries
Where the costal arch ends marks the cranial boundary of what anatomical abdominal region?
Middle Abdominal region
What two regions flank the umbilical region?
Lateral regions (left and right)
What two regions flank the Pubic region?
Inguinal regions (left and right)
What region is caudal to the xiphoid region?
Just above the last pair of mammary glands (teets) marks the cranial boundary of what anatomical abdominal region?
Caudal Abdominal region
What region is cranially bounded by the costal arch and caudally bounded by the cranial abdominal region?
What two regions flank the xiphoid region?
Hypochondriac regions (left and right)
What region is located cranial to the entire abdominal region?
What is the anatomical term for the chest of the dog in reference to its EXTERNAL topography?
What is the anatomical term for the space between the ears on top of the head in reference to its EXTERNAL topogrpahy?
Where do we draw the two lateral longitudinal lines when dividing the underbelly of the dog into regions?
Just outside the teets
What anatomical plane divides the dog into its dorsal and ventral regions?
What anatomical plane divides the dog into its left and right equal regions?
What anatomical plane is considered associated with the median plane, closer to medial axis but does not split the animal into two equal halves?
Para-medial sagittal plane
What anatomical plane divides the animal into two unequal left and right halves?
What anatomical plane divides the animal into its cranial and caudal regions?
What is the term used to define the "cranial" aspect of the head? (located on the snout)
What is the name of the structure at the tip of the muzzle?
What is the directional term defined as "toward the belly"?
What is the directional term defined as "toward the skull"?
What does the directional term Caudal refer to?
Toward the tail
What directional term is defined as "away from the trunk"?
What is the definition of the directional term proximal?
Toward the trunk
What is the directional term opposite the cranial aspect of the manus?
What is the directional term opposite the cranial aspect of the pes?
What directional term is defined as "away from the main axis" of the limb or organ?
What is the name of the substance that is composed of everything within a cell with the exception of the cell membrane?
Protoplasm exists in the form of ______
What do cells combine with to form tissues?
Intercellular substances (i.e. fiber/macromolecules)
What are the three structural components of connective tissue?
Cells, Fibres, and Ground Substance
Where do we find connective tissue?
Everywhere in the body
What are the three types of "non-solid" connective tissue?
What is the fluid most form of connective tissue called?
What is the solid/rigid most form of connective tissue called?
What are the three forms of Loose connective tissue?
Tendons, aponeuroses, ligaments and deep fascia are all forms of ....
Dense connective tissue
What are the four types of solid connective tissue?
What does the subcutis or hypodermis refer to?
What tissue is referred to as "filler" tissue and is not very strong?
Loose connective tissue
What is the core example of loose connective tissue?
Where do we see loose connective tissue in the body?
Widely distributed throughout the body
What is the greatest negative feature of loose connective tissue?
The ease of infection to spread
What other tissue type is known to accompany loose connective tissue?
What connective tissue is defined as an organized fiber arrangement providing strength and durability?
Dense connective tissue
What is the core example of dense connective tissue?
Where do we see Deep fascia
Beneath the superficial fascia layer, surrounding and invading muscles breaking them into groups
What are the three functions of deep fascia?
1. Organization of surrounding tissue (i.e. muscle groups)
2. Serves as an attachment site for some muscles
3. Protective impermeability for infections
What is the name of the modified and thickened version of deep fascia?
What is the flattened modified version of a tendon called?
What is similar to retinaculum but is considered more organized?
What is the function of retinaculum?
hold tendons into place
What tissue type is responsible for the organized movement in the body?
What is required in order to achieve muscular contraction?
What muscle type is unstriated, involuntary and found associated with organs (viscera)?
What muscle type is controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System?
Which muscle type is defined as striated, somatic, and under voluntary control?
What are the three architectural divisions of a muscle?
What does the length of a muscle fiber determine?
the shortness of a contraction (i.e. degree of motion)
What determines the power or force of a contraction?
Physiological cross-sectional area (i.e. the thicker the muscle = the stronger the contraction)
If we increase the number of physiological cross sections within a muscle, what occurs?
Increased degree of contraction
What tissue organizes/covers the entire whole muscle?
What does the Perimysium surround?
fascicles or bundles
What tissue organizes/covers individual muscle fibres?
What determines the shape of a muscle?
The arrangement of the muscle fibers
Which muscle tissue classification is defined as having long fibers, parallel to the central axis and tendons?
Strap-like and Fusiform muscles are examples of what muscle tissue classification?
Muscle seen around the eyes and lips are usually in what muscle class? (think sphincters)
What defines circular muscles?
Circular muscle fibers that do not change their length during contraction, also known as sphincters
Which muscle tissue classification is defined as having fibers attached to their tendons at an angle and having long muscle bellies located closer to the body?
Between pennate muscles and parallel muscles, which provides a greater degree of motion and which provides a greater degree of contractile strength?
Pennate muscles have a larger physiological cross sectional area making them stronger but have shorter muscle fibers
Parallel muscles have longer muscle fibers providing them with an increased degree of motion but lack a large cross sectional area for power
What is the purpose of pennate muscles having multiple muscle fiber directions?
To increase the physiological cross sectional area
Name all muscle classes that are defined as arising from multiple heads (tendons of origin) but share one tendon of insertion?
Biceps, triceps, quadriceps
Define the structure of the biventer muscle class?
Two muscle bellies sharing both a tendon of origin and a tendon of insertion
Which muscle classification is defined as a two muscle units separated by a intermediate tendon?
Which muscle groups are responsible for decreasing the angle between the limb and the joint?
Which muscle groups are responsible for increasing the angle between the limb and the joint?
Which muscle movement is defined as rotating the limb inward toward the body?
Which muscle movement is defined as rotating the limb outward away from the body?
Which muscle groups are responsible for moving the limb away from the central axis of the body?
Which muscle groups are responsible for moving the limb toward the central axis of the body?
What defines the functional muscle movement of elevation?
Lifting the limb relative to other parts of the body
Muscles that assist one another in movement of the body are called?
What is the definition of muscles that oppose each others movement of the body? (Functional opposites)
The omotransversarius muscle and brachiocephalicus muscle together are an example of having what functional classification?
The bachiocephalicus muscle and the latissmus dorsi muscle together are an example of having what functional classification?
What two muscle classifications are named according to their location with respect to the organ or body part they move?
Extrinsic and Intrinsic muscles
Muscles that attach an organ to the limb, or to other organs, come from which class of muscles?
Intrinsic muscles are present where in relation to a specific organ/body part?
Within the organ (i.e. muscle only seen functioning one particular body part)
Are the triceps an example of intrinsic or extrinsic muscles?
Is the cricothyroideus muscle an example of an intrinsic muscle or extrinsic muscle? Why?
Intrinsic - because it connects the cricoid cartilage of the larynx to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx, thus remaining within one organ
Is the brachiocephalicus muscle an example of an intrinsic or extrinsic muscle?
Is the cricopharyngeus muscle an example of an intrinsic or extrinsic muscle? Why?
Extrinsic - because it connects the cricoid cartilage of the larynx to the pharynx, thus connecting two different organs
Tendons are responsible for connecting what two things together?
Muscle to Bone
The "fleshy" attachment seen coming from muscle directly attached to the bone are also known as ...
A flat broad modification of the tendon is known as ...
What term is defined as the clear progression from tendon to fibrocartilage to mineralized fibrocartilage to bone?
Place the following in the correct progression starting from the muscle:
B. Mineralized fibrocartilage
A --> C --> B --> D
What is the function of sesamoid bones, where do we see them?
Sesamoid bones function to reduce friction on the tendon in areas of high mobility, they are embedded in the tendon
The patella is an example of what type of bone?
What muscle tissue may develop where excessive friction occurs replacing part of the tendon to ensure "toughness"?
What is the name of the fluid filled cushion that sits between the tendon and the bone, functioning to reduce friction?
Describe the structure of the synovial sheath and its function
Fluid filled cushion that completely surrounds some length of the tendon, functions to reduce friction
Which fluid filled cushion is seen at areas of the greatest friction, where a greater part of the tendon is at risk?
Why are tendons slow healing?
They are avascular and thus are provided less blood for wound repair
Why is it possible for some muscles to be innervated by multiple nerves?
Because as muscle develop they carry with them the nerves from the somites they originated from
The nerve supply passes through and branches within the __________________ of the muscles (along with the blood vessels)
connective tissue septa
Do muscle fibers have high or low amounts of blood supply?
What is the basic functional unit of the nervous system?
What part of the neuron is responsible for organizing and keeping the cell alive?
What are the functions of the dendrities?
Receive information and signals from other cells
What produces the myelin sheath and what is it's primary function?
Schwann cells produce the myelin sheath which insulates the axon of the neuron ensuring faster transmission of signals
Where on the neuron does the generation of an action potential impulse occur?
What are the five main functions of the neuron as it relates to nerve impulses?
What are the three basic types of neurons?
motor, sensory, and interneurons
What cells are responsible for the support of neurons?
What are the two forms of neuroglial cells found in the CNS?
astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
What are the two forms of neuroglial cells found in the PNS?
Neurilemmal and satellite cells
Grey matter is mainly composed of....
nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated neurons
Which form of brain matter is composed of myelinated nerve axons?
What is the name of the space between neurons where impulses are transmitted and communicated?
What term is defined as a collective body of nerve cells with similar function located OUTSIDE of the CNS?
What term is defined as a collective body of nerve cells with similar function located WITHIN the CNS?
In the CNS we see the nuclei in what matter form?
Grey Matter (cell bodies)
What term is defined as the group of nerve fibers which carry information between the various parts of the CNS?
What are lemnisci, fasciculi, and peduncles all forms of?
Neural tract shapes
What type of matter do we see typically associated with neural tracts?
White matter (axons)
Where do we see neural tracts located?
Within the CNS
What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?
CNS and PNS
What are the two main divisions of the PNS?
Somatic (motor) nervous system and Visceral (autonomic) nervous system
Which branch of the PNS deals with involuntary impulses?
Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are the two subdivisions of what nervous system?
Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System
What two components make up the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
What nerves make up the Somatic (motor) nervous system?
All spinal and cranial nerves
What are the two systems of impulse direction?
Afferent and Efferent
What function does the Afferent system have with information, what direction does this information go?
receiving information and sending it to the CNS/ ascending
What are 1st order neurons and what system are they associated with?
Also known as sensory neurons, 1st order neurons carry signals from the periphery to the spinal cord
They are associated with the Afferent system
What function does the Efferent system have with information, what direction does this information go?
giving instructions/orders from the CNS/ descending
What two types of neurons are associated with the Efferent sytem?
Efferent neurons and motor neurons
Are the Upper and Lower Motor Neurons (UMN/LMN) associated with the efferent or the afferent system?
Division of the nervous system depends upon the nature of what two factors?
The nature of the information and the nature of the activities
What division of the PNS is concerned with the body's relationship to the outside world, movement, locomotion, etc.?
Somatic Nervous System
What are Exteroceptive sensations? Which division of the PNS do they associate with?
External environmental stimuli, they are associated with the Somatic Nervous System
Withdrawing your hand after touching something hot is an example of what type of sensation response?
What type of sensations are concerned with "self" and awareness of position in space? What division of the PNS is this associated with?
Proprioceptive sensation - associated with the Somatic Nervous System
Maintaining your balance is an example of what form of sensation response?
Vision and Hearing are components of what SPECIFIC division of the PNS?
Special Somatic Afferent
What does the General Somatic Efferent (GSE) system deal with?
executing CNS movement demands
What division of the PNS is concerned with the Internal environment/state of the body?
Visceral Nervous System
What are Interoceptive sensations? What division of the PNS are they associated with?
Internal environmental stimuli - associated with the Visceral Nervous System
Regulation of the heart, glands, viscera, and hollow organs is an example of what sensation response?
Taste and Smell are components of what SPECIFIC division of PNS?
Special Visceral Afferent
What is the difference between interoceptive vs enteroceptive sensations?
Interoceptive deals with the internal state of the body but enteroceptive deals strictly with the state of hollow organs
What two systems are the General Visceral Efferent fibers concerned with? (think unconscious commands)
Sympathetic and parasympathetic
The receptors that provide information regarding the present angulation of the joints and stretching of the muscles are functions of what fibers?
GSA (General Somatic Afferent)
What term refers to the awareness of the position and movement of the parts of the body by means of sensory organs in the muscles and joints?
Which nerves have GSA (General Somatic Afferent) fibers?
All spinal nerves and many cranial nerves
Visceral afferent pathways originate in the __________ receptors of vessels, glands and the viscera of the head, neck and trunk
What neuron fibers are concerned with body temperature, blood pressure, gas concentration/pressure, and movement of viscera?
GVA (General Visceral Afferent) fibers
The Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and Vagus (CN X) nerves have what fibers?
GVA (General Visceral Afferent)
The Optic (CN 2) and Vestibulocochlear (CN 8) nerves have what fibers?
SSA (Special Somatic Afferent)
Equilibrioceptive sensation deals with.....
The body's state of equilibrium
The Olfactory (CN I) and Chorda Tympani facial nerve (CN VII) have what fibers?
SVA (Special Visceral Afferent)
Which two systems are responsible for the increase and decrease of peristaltic movements in the GI tract and secretions of the glands?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Which fibers are responsible for the motor innervation to the smooth muscle of the viscera and vessels, heart muscle and to glands?
GVE (General Visceral Efferent)
Which subdivision of the Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System contains cranio-sacral fibers?
Which subdivision of the Visceral (Autonomic) Nervous System contains thoro-lumbar fibers?
What tissue is found along surfaces with little to no intercellular space?
What form of epithelia is specifically present along the inner surface of the blood vessels and the heart?
What form of epithelia is specifically present along the internal lining of the body wall forming structures like the pleura?
What form of connective tissue is specialized to be both rigid but flexible to provide weight bearing capabilities?
What cells make up cartilage and sit within its gel-like matrix?
The perichondrium is an example of what form of solid CT?
How does cartilage receive nutrients?
Diffusion of nutrients and O2 from surrounding tissues
What takes longer to heal and why, bones or cartilage?
Cartilage, because in contrast to bone, cartilage is avascular
What do we call tissue that has the ability to renew and remodel throughout the lifetime of an animal?
Do we typically see thicker or thinner long bones in adults? Why?
Thinner, because as the animal progresses the long bones increase their length and ossify resulting in thinner bones
The unique construction of bones provide them with what two important characteristics?
Tensile strength and lightweight
What is the name of the force in which rotation only occurs at one end of a bone?
Lifting heavy objects results in what type of force being applied to long bones?
What are the four main functions of bone?
2. Support and body form
3. System of lever for mobility
4. Mineral reserve
What is a class one lever? Where is there an example of this in the body?
fulcrum placed between the force and load
example is tilting the head back and forth
Which class of lever do we see both load and force on the same side of the fulcrum, and the load closer to the fulcrum than the force?
Tip-toeing is an example of what class of lever?
Which class of lever do we see both load and force on the same side of the fulcrum, and the force is closer to the fulcrum than the load?
Lifting a glass of water is an example of what class of lever?
What type of bone do we see in the abdominal cavity of birds connected to air sacs in order to aid in flight?
What is the only difference between a short bone and an irregular bone?
Irregular bones are short bones that contain processes that extend outward from the main body of the bone
The carpal bones are an example of which bone type?
The vertebra are examples of what type of bone?
What is the prime example of a flat bone?
Bones of the skull
Limb bones are all classified as what type of bones?
How do we define Visceral/Splanchnic bones?
Bones that are found embedded in the organ
What structure of the bone is conical in shape and lies between the epiphyses and the disphysis?
What is uniquely found in long bones that is not present in any other types of bones?
What structure of a bone is responsible for the lengthening of the long bone during growth?
Epiphyseal plate (Physis)
Where is the only portion of the long bone we don't see an outer covering of compact bone?
When is the epiphyseal plate the thickest?
In the young
What form of bone is also known as cortical bone?
What replaces the medullary cavity in the extremities of long bones?
Where do we see bone marrow in the long bone?
Medullary cavity and interstitial spaces of the spongy bone
Which bone tissue is comprised of only osteogenic cells?
What bone tissue is defined as a thin vascular membrane of connective tissue lining the inner surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity?
What are the three bone forms we see making up the interlacing element of spongy bone?
Spicules, plates, trabeculae
What is the primary purpose of spongy bone?
Reducing the density/weight of the bone while still providing strength against compression
What is the difference in the arrangement of osteocytes between spongy bone and compact bone?
Both contain osteocytes, but spongy bone doesn't have them in a concentric fashion
Which type of bone marrow is hematopoietically active?
Which bone marrow do we see abundant in young animals vs which do we see abundant in adults?
What percentage of cardiac output is seen sent to the bones?
What is the name of the main artery that supplies long bones with oxygenated blood?
What is the name of the oblique through which the main artery and vein enter the long bones?
What vessels do we see absent in bone?
What do anastomoses between the nutrient and metaphyseal arteries provide the bone?
Good collateral circulation
Collateral circulation is crucial for
What is the name of the blood vessel that drains a majority of the deoxygenated blood from long bones?
Structurally, what types of bones are defined as a layer of cancellous bone "sandwiched" between two thin layers of compact bone?
Metacarpal bones are an example of what type of bone?
What defines a true body cavity?
If it is derived from the mesoderm splitting into two layers
What is the name for the study of viscera?
In mammals what are the 3 true body cavities?
Peritoneal cavity (Abdominal)
Pleural cavity (Thoracic)
Pericardial cavity (Heart)
What are the four regions discussed that are NOT true cavities but are still referred to as separate cavities?
The Esophagus, Trachea, and Larynx all belong to which space/cavity?
What are the four structures we find within the cervical space that are not apart of the respiratory or digestive systems?
Recurrent laryngeal nerves
What vein is found outside and along the length of the cervical space?
External jugular vein
As we move from a cranial to a caudal direction along the cervical space, the esophagus moves from a ______ location at the C2 to a _______ location at the T1
Central - C2
Lateral/Left leaning - T1
What is the term that is defined as the junctional region between structures of the root of the neck and the contents of the thoracic cavity? (bounded by the T1 vertebrae and it's corresponding ribs)
What are the four components that make up the URT?
Why are air passages either bony or cartilaginous?
To avoid collapse of the channel in order to facilitate uninterrupted respiration
What are the three components that make up the LRT?
What is the name of the thick keritainized epidermis of the external nose?
In cats the nasal plate is seen as having _________
In dogs the nasal plate is seen as having both ______ and ______. What is their function?
Plaques and sucli (grooves)
These function to spread the secretions from the lateral nasal glands across the entire surface of the nasal plate
What is the philtrum?
Shallow vertical groove /cleft of the nose
What are the four cartilages that make up the external nose?
Dorsal lateral cartilage
Ventral lateral cartilage
What is the caudal limit to the nasal cavity?
Cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
What is the name of the two apertures of the nasal cavity that open caudally into the nasopharynx?
What two mucosa types that are present within the nasal cavity? What are their functions and locations with respect to eachother?
Respiratory mucosa- Filter and trap particles (Sits more rostral)
Olfactory mucosa- Sensory receptors for sense of smell (Sits more caudal)
What is the dorsal boundary of the nasal cavity?
The ventral boundary of the nasal cavity will transition as you move more caudal. What bones make up the ventral boundary in the beginning? Middle? End?
Beginning - incisive bone
Middle - Maxillary bone
End - Palatine bone
What boundary do the maxillary and incisive bones provide the nasal cavity?
Lateral boundary (walls)
What bone is responsible for forming the osseus part of the nasal septum?
Ethmoid bone (cribiform plate)
What is the name of the area at the rostral most part of the nasal cavity?
What structure is considered a rostral bulbous extension of the ventral concha that sits within the nasal vestibule?
What structure within the nasal cavity is completely absent in cats?
What are nasal conchae?
Cartilaginous or slightly ossified scrolls covered by nasal and olfactory mucosa
What structure within the nasal cavity is also known as the nasal turbinate?
Dorsal nasal concha
What structure within the nasal cavity is also known as the maxillary turbinate?
Ventral nasal concha
What are the 3 main conchae of the nasal cavity?
Dorsal, Ventral, and Ethmodial conchae
Which conchae of the nasal cavity is the largest?
What is a meatus?
canal-like passageway created by the presence of nasal conchae
What are the four meatuses found within the nasal cavity?
Dorsal, Middle, Ventral, and Common
What meatus provides the most amount of appropriate space for nasal intubation with the least chance of damage to surrounding tissue/structures?
Ventral nasal meatus
What are the three basic functions of the nasal cavity?
1. Warming/moistening incoming air
2. Trapping foreign material
How many sinuses are in the dog? (this includes "not true" sinuses)
What sinuses are described as a diverticula of the nasal cavity that extend into the skull bones?
How many compartments are present within the Frontal sinuses of the dog? What are they?
Which Frontal sinus compartment within the dog is the largest?
Are the paranasal sinuses connected indirectly or directly to the nasal cavity?
What are the names of the openings that communicate the Frontal sinus with the nasal cavity? How many are there?
One opening per compartment
What concha projects into almost all of the Frontal sinuses? What function does this serve?
Ethmoid concha - because these concha are lined with olfactory mucosa, they help with sense of smell
Under normal conditions, how do the frontal sinuses drain out excess/unwanted fluid?
Because of their open communication to the nasal cavity, they secrete their fluid there
Which compartment(s) is/are the most caudal within the frontal sinus?
Which compartment(s) is/are the most rostral within the frontal sinus?
Rostral and Medial
The dorsal and middle meatuses lead air toward ....
Ethmoid concha (frontal sinuses)
What structure is responsible for dividing the compartments of the Frontal sinuses in the dog?
Not very strict separations
What sinus is described as a cavity/space located between maxilla and the ethmoid bone?
What opening is responsible for communicating the nasal cavity with the maxillary recess?
Which paranasal sinus is not considered a "true" sinus?
What tooth is rooted in the maxillary recess? What clinical significance does this play?
If there were a condition that caused improper/inefficient drainage of the sinuses, this tooth can be extracted to help
their communication makes both areas likely to become infected together
The lateral nasal gland is associated with which paranasal sinus?
The duct of the Lateral nasal gland runs from where to where?
Nasomaxillary opening toward nasal vestibule, just before the alar fold (dogs)
How many paranasal sinuses are there in the cat? What are they?
What difference do we see between the frontal sinuses of the dog and cat?
Dog sinuses have 3 compartments while cats have no compartments
The sphenoid sinuses are present where in the cats?
What procedure is done in order to create drainage in the frontal sinuses of the cat and dog? Describe the procedure briefly
Trephination - holes are drilled into both frontal sinuses and tubes are placed to temporarily remove fluid build up
What breeds of dogs and cats have an almost completely absent frontal sinus? (Think breed classifications not singular breeds)
What are the four regions that make up the pharynx? What are the associated structures they communicate the pharynx with?
Nasopharynx - nasa; cavity
Oropharynx - oral cavity
Interpharyngeal (common pharyx) - all components meet here
Laryngopharynx - larynx
Which region of the pharynx houses the epiglottis?
Interpharyngeal ostium (common pharynx)
Which sits more rostral to the other, pharynx or larynx?
Which structure within the respiratory apparatus is described as a musculo-cartilaginous organ?
What are the two main functions of the larynx?
1) Organ of phonation
2) Guard the entrance to the trachea
Where is the larynx positioned with respect to the tongue and the trachea?
Caudal to the tongue and Cranial to the trachea
Where are we capable of palpating the larynx?
Ventral neck (throat region)
The epiglottis when open, protrudes into the _________ by passing through the ______
interpharyngeal ostium/common pharynx
What are the 4 main cartilages and 2 minor cartilages of the larynx?
Main: Epiglottis, Thyroid, Arytenoid, Cricoid
Minor: Sesamoid and Interarytenoid
What are the three parts to the epiglottis? Which communicates with the cricoid cartilage?
Stalk- communicates with cricoid cartilage
What type of cartilage makes up the epiglottis?
What cartilage of the larynx makes up its cranial most region?
Which cartilage of the larynx creates the Adam's apple? How is this structure formed?
Thyroid cartilage - formed by the ventral fusion of the two lateral lamina
Which cartilage of the larynx forms the laryngeal floor?
What are the two points of articulation made by the Thyroid cartilage?
Rostral horn forms thyrohyoid articulation
Caudal horn forms cricothyroid articulation
What two cartilages of the Larynx are made up of solely Hyaline cartilage?
Thyroid and Cricoid
Which cartilage of the larynx is the only one to form a complete circle?
What is the name of the expanded dorsal lamina of the cricoid cartilage?
What are the two points of articulation on the Cricoid cartilage?
What cartilage of the larynx is described as irregularly shaped and paired?
How many parts are there to the Arytenoid cartilage of the larynx in the dog? What are they? Where are they positioned with respect to eachother?
Vocal process - ventral
Muscular process - lateral
Corniculate process - dorsomedial
Cunieform process- cranial
What cartilage of the larynx is responsible for the formation of the Glottic cleft?
What Arytenoid cartilage process(es) are seen in the dog but not the cat?
Cunieform process and Corniculate process
What is the function of the hyoid apparatus?
suspends the larynx and supports the tongue from the skull
What are the 5 bones (in order) that make up the hyoid apparatus?
What cartilage forms the point of articulation between the hyoid and the temporal bone?
Which bone of the hyoid apparatus is responsible for providing attachment for root of the tongue?
The laryngeal cavity is made up of what three components?
What organ is described as being hollow and lined with a highly sensitive mucous membrane?
What is the name of the space in between the vocal and vestibular folds in the dog?
What term refers to the lateral extension/blind sacs of the laryngeal lumen?
The larynx in total receives sensory innervation from the ______________
Cranial and caudal (recurrent) laryngeal nerves
What orifice sits within the laryngeal opening and is created by the presence of the artyneoid cartilages?
So although during swallowing, the epiglottis will move caudally to cover the _________; the ________ also must close in order to prevent passage into the trachea
What are the five EXTRINISIC muscles of the larynx?
(All involve the Hyoid, Pharynx, and the Sternum)
What are the two main functions of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles?
1. Provide support to the larynx
2. Move the larynx cranially and caudally
Which intrinsic muscle of the larynx is responsible for tensing the vocal folds (chords) being the main contributor to phonation? (oriented like a bowtie)
The Cricoarytenoideus has how many parts? What are they? What are each of their respect main function?
Dorsalis - Abduct the arytenoid cartilages (open the glottic cleft)
Lateralis - Adduct the arytenoid cartilages (closes the glottic cleft)
What muscle would be the main pathological contributor to labored breathing? (roaring in horses)
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (because this is the ONLY muscle to open the glottic cleft)
What are the two parts to the Thyroartyenoideus? What are their respective functions?
Vocalis - relax vocal folds
Ventricularis - constricts glottis by dilating the laryngeal ventricles
What five intrinsic muscles all CONSTRICT the glottis?
2. Cricoarytenoideus lateralis
3. Aryteniodeus transversus
What is the only muscle to be innervated by the cranial laryngeal nerve?
The Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis/lateralis, Arytenoideus transversus, Thyroarytenoideus, Vocalis, and Ventricularis are ALL innervated by what nerve?
Caudal laryngeal nerve
What nerve is also referred to as the terminal part of the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
Caudal laryngeal nerve
Why do we have more muscles responsible for closing the glottic cleft and only one responsible for opening the glottic cleft?
Because during inspiration, the pressure that is created in order to bring air into the lungs opens the arytenoid cartilages without assistance, while conversely, in order to keep air in the lungs and build up this pressure, the glottic cleft must close more tightly. Thus requiring more muscular force.
The Tympanohyoid articulation is what type of joint?
The Thyrohyoid articulation is what type of joint?
The Cricothyroid articulation is what type of joint?
The Cricoarytenoid articulation is what type of joint?
What is the name of the thickening between the two halves of the Cricothyroideus? (elastic membrane)
What is the name of the elastic membrane that is present between the epiglottic and thyroid cartilages?
What term is used to describe when a ligament is covered by the mucous membrane of the laryngeal cavity?
Fold (therefore the vocal and ventricular folds are also known as vocal and ventricular ligaments)
What structure is uniquely responsible for allowing the passage of fluid over the glottic cleft into laryngo-pharynx? (i.e. preventing fluid from entering the trachea)
Where is it located?
Piriform recess - located between the cunieform and corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilage
What is the name of the main artery the cranial thyroid artery branches from?
Common carotid artery
What artery is considered a branch of the external carotid artery?
Cranial Laryngeal artery
What artery acts as the major blood supply to the larynx?
Cranial Laryngeal artery
What differences are seen within the cats vocal and vestibular folds?
Vocal folds are thicker and rounder
Vestibular folds are thinner and sharper
Cats do not have a genuine _________, but rather, small pouches of the vestibular mucosa that extend lateral to the vestibular fold.
What causes the purring in cats?
Fast twitching of the laryngeal muscles and the diaphragm
Laryngeal muscles rapidly narrowing and widening the glottis