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Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.
the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.
hypophyseal portal system
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.
it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. This hormone is released ________.
when the body's glucose level rises
Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.
entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.
binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.
The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.
targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the flat bones of the skull.
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.
Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.
Select the correct statement regarding age-related blood disorders.
They include anemias and thromboembolic disorders.
When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?
if the father is Rh-
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