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ch 32 face negotiation theory
Terms in this set (45)
3 main diff between individualistic and collectivistic
different ways members perceive self, goals, and duty
people look out for themselves and their immediate families, thus acting
from an I-identity
people identify with a larger group that is responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty, thus acting from a we-identity
• More than two-thirds of the world
are born into collectivistic cultures.
the degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to, others.
• People within a culture differ on the relative reemphasis they place on individual self-sufficiency or group solidarity (within-group variance)
• Self-construal is a better predictor of conflict styles than ethic/cultural background
The self-construal of individuals who conceive of themselves as relatively
autonomous from others; I-identity.
The self-construal of individuals who conceive of themselves as
interconnected with many others; we-identity.
A metaphor for our public self-image; the projected image of one's self in a relational situation., a metaphor for self-image
• Face is a universal concern because it is an extension of the self-concept, a vulnerable, identity-based resource
• The meaning of face differs depending on differences in cultural and individual identities
• There are three orientations of face: self-face, other-face, and mutual (or group)-face
The enactment of specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help maintain and
restore face loss, and to uphold and hold face gain.
• Facework of people from individualistic cultures will be strikingly different from face work of people from collectivistic cultures
when desired identity is challenged
focuses on whose face a person wants to save. self-face, other face, mutual face?
The self-concerned facework strategy used
to stake out a unique place in life
to preserve autonomy to defend against personal loss of freedom
• common strategies: justifying one's actions, blaming the situation
• typical of individualistic cultures
The other-concerned facework strategy used to defend and support another person's need for inclusion, such as not embarrassing each other in public
Obliging (giving in, accommodating)
Integrating (problem-solving, collaborating)
"i would avoid discussing my differences with the group member"
"i would give in to the wishes of the group member"
"i would use give and take so that a compromise could be made"
"i would be firm in pursuing my side of the issue"
"i would exchange accurate information with the group member to solve the problem together"
an individual lets his or her feelings show.
disputing seek the aid of a mediator, arbitrator, or respected neutral to help them resolve their differences
an individual tries to elicit, indirectly, a particular solution. Making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another's resolution of conflict
• The way a culture deals with status differences, social hierarchies;
• The extent to which the less powerful members of society accept that power is distributed unequally
severity of face threats increase when
1. Central facework rule in culture violated
2. Cultural difference causes mistrust
3. Topic is important
4. Power other has over you
5. Harm that could be done by threat
6. The other initiates conflict
7. The other is an outgroup member
• Knowledge—one must be culturally sensitive
• Mindfulness—one must choose to seek multiple perspectives on the
• Interaction skill—one must be able to communicate appropriately, effectively, and adaptively in a given situation.
• Objective social science agenda
• Quality respected by peers (community and agreement)
• Committed to ongoing development
• Analyses based solely on self-report data (true encounters can't be subjected to the scientific method).
• Complicated (lack of parsimony)
• Survey items that assess integrating, collaborating, and win-win outcomes may be questionable.
t/f • More than two-thirds of the world's people are born into collectivistic cultures
t/f • Face is an Asian concept that is not particularly important to Westerners.
t/f •Ting-Toomey assumes that people of all cultures are always negotiating their public self-image
t/f • We-identity is to Americans as I-identity is to the Japanese
false, americans are i and japanese are we
t/f • Self-construal is the degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to, others
t/f • In a conflict, people from collectivistic cultures are generally more likely to focus on face-restoration than face-giving
false, other way around
t/f • A face threat occurs when you challenge another's competence
t/f • Facework refers to efforts to expose the true feelings and hidden agendas of one's counterpart in negotiation
false, that would be a face threat
t/f • For Asians, integration means achieving peace with one another
t/f • Students from individualistic cultures tend to favor other-face concern
false, collectivists do this
t/f • You are more likely to defend your face with a person who has power over you
t/f • Third-party mediators in large power distance cultures are usually people who are honored and respected by both parties in the dispute
t/f Members of collectivistic cultures are more likely to use passive aggression because it is indirect
false, used by individualist
t/f • Members of individualistic cultures tend to rely on the conflict resolution technique of dominating
t/f • Oetzel and Ting-Toomey claim that ethnic/cultural background is a better predictor of conflict styles than self-construal.
• When people blame the situation for their mistakes, they are probably engaging in ________________________.
• A classic or prototypical example of a collectivistic culture is ________________________.
• When you tell someone, "Don't worry about it," you are probably engaging in _____________________.
• Obliging as a conflict strategy is also called ________________________.
accomidating or giving in
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