Exam 1 review

Anatomy is the study of
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Terms in this set (141)
The organ system that consists of glands such as the pituitary and thyroid glands and is a major regulatory system, directing long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, is theendocrine system.Which of these organ systems is involved in exchanging gases in the body?respiratory systemThe organ system that defends against infection and disease is thelymphatic system.The organ system that consists of the skin, hair, and nails, and protects the body and helps to control body temperature is theintegumentary system.The system of the body that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood and transports cells and dissolved materials internally is thecardiovascular systemHomeostasis is the condition produced bythe tendency for change in a body parameter to be counteracted as soon as the body parameter goes past its normal value.Negative feedback always functions to make any deviation from homeostasissmallerWhich of these statements is true of negative feedback?Negative feedback is important for maintaining homeostasis in the body.Which of these is an example of a positive-feedback mechanism?Increased stretch of the uterus causes it to contract, which further increases stretch.The anatomical term for nose isnasalThe anatomical term for naval isumbilicalThe anatomical term for hand ismanualThe anatomical name for the front of the elbow isantecubitalThe anatomical name for the wrist iscarpalThe anatomical name for the kneecap ispatellarThe anatomical name for the sole of the foot isplantarThe anatomical name for the back isdorsalDescribe the anatomical positionthe human body is standing upright, with feet slightly apart, head and toes facing forward, and arms at the sides with palms facing forward.The skin is _________________ to underlying muscles.superficialThe feet are _________________ to the knees.distalThe nose is between or _________________ to the eyes.medialThe navel is ________________ to the hips.medialThe humerus, upper arm bone, is ________________ to the muscles in the upper arm.deepThe cut labeled "A" produces a ________ sectioning.sagittalThe cut labeled "B" produces a ________ sectioning.transverseThe cut labeled "C" produces a ________ sectioning.coronalWhat type of section cut between the two eyes, giving equal right and left halves of the body.midsagittalWhat type of section cut along the long axis of the body gives right and left portions of unequal size.parasagittalThe structure that separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities is thediaphragm.The structure of the ventral cavity that contains the heart is called thepericardial cavity.A unique feature of the kidneys and pancreas is that they resideretroperitoneally.The area labeled "A" is the ________ cavity.pleuralThe area labeled "D" is the ________ cavity.abdomino-pelvicThe chemical behavior of an atom is largely determined byits outermost electrons.The smallest particle into which an element can be divided using chemical methods is a(n)atom.Subatomic particles located in the nucleus of an atom are calledprotons and neutrons.The amount of matter in an object is itsmass.Subatomic particles that possess a negative charge, and move around the nucleus of an atom are calledelectrons.When one atom loses an electron and another atom accepts that electron a(n) _______ bond between the two atoms results.ionicWhen the sodium and chloride in table salt (NaCl) separate in water, the process is calleddissociation.Substances that produce ions when dissolved are referred to aselectrolytes.The weak attraction between a molecule with polar covalent bonds and another polar covalent molecule (or ion) is called a(n)hydrogen bond.Atoms that have gained or lost electrons are calledions.What is the chemical symbol for Oxygen?OWhat is the chemical symbol for Sodium?NaWhat is the chemical symbol for Iron?FeWhat element does the chemical symbol "K" represent?PotassiumWhat element does the chemical symbol "Cl" represent?ChlorineWhat element does the chemical symbol "Mg" represent?MagnesiumThe change represented by the equation: Energy + ADP + Pi ® ATP would be calleda synthesis reactionWhen two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form a new and larger molecule, the process is called asynthesis reaction.A chemical reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments is calleda decomposition reaction.The change represented by the equation: sucrose ® glucose + fructose, is an example of a(n)decomposition reaction.A substance that increases the rate at which a reaction proceeds, without itself being changed or depleted is acatalyst.What is the commonality shared by hydrolysis and dehydration reactions?Both involve water.soluble compounds whose ions will conduct an electrical current in solution are calledelectrolytes.When water dissociates, it forms aboth are formed when water dissociatesWhen the number of hydrogen ions equals the number of hydroxide ions,the solution is neutral, a state of equilibrium.A solution with a pH of 7 is considered to beneutralWhen the number of hydrogen ions are greater than the number of hydroxide ions,the solution is acidic.When the number of hydroxide ions are greater than the number of hydrogen ions,the solution is alkalinic.If the solution is called a "base",the solution is alkalinic.Carbohydrates are named by how many ______________ they containsugars,The organic compound that is composed of is composed of glycerol backbone and fatty acid chains are calledlipids.The building blocks for proteins areamino acidsSteroids don't see the cell membrane as a barrier because steriods are___________crossing the phosphlipid bylayer with no problemlipidsThe organic compound that is composed of chains of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds are callednucleic acidsThe basic living unit for all organisms is thecellThe process of gradual specialization of cells in an organism is calleddifferentiation.Intracellular structures that carry out specific functions for the cell are calledorganelles.Another word for intracellular fluid iscytosolThe cellular organelle that is responsible for modifying, packaging, and distribution of proteins isGolgi apparatusMost ATP production takes place in the :mitochondrionThe nucleus of a cell :The nucleus has all of these properties.A cell that was producing large amounts of lipoproteins (proteins combined with lipids) would have large numbers ofsmooth endoplasmic reticulum.A cell that was producing large amounts of proteins would have large numbers ofrough endoplasmic reticulum.The structures that extend from inside to outside of the cell membrane, allowing selected substances to enter or leave the cell are theprotein channels.The ____________ of a cell membrane is determined by its lipids, phospholipids , and cholesterol molecules.structureThe cell membrane is composed of a double layer ofphospholipidsThe hydrophilic heads of the phospholipids face the outside of the cell and the inside of the cell because these ends of the phospholipidslike waterA red blood cell placed in distilled water(hypotonic solution) would be expected toswell and lyse.The movement of ions or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, until equilibrium is reached is calleddiffusion.Solutions injected into tissues or into the circulatory system must be _______ to prevent crenation or swelling of cells.isotonicEndocytosisinvolves the formation of a vesicle by "pinching off" the cell membrane.The diffusion water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, across a semi-permeable membrane, until equilibrium is reached is calledosmosis.Active transportAll of these are characteristics of active transport.Tissue that lines surfaces of our bodies is?epitheliumTissue that is found between other tissues, typically containing a lot of noncellular material or being more loosely organized is?connectiveTissue involved in coordinating actions of other tissues is?nervousTissue responsible for moving parts of our bodies or moving things through our bodies is?muscleWhich of these is NOT one of the four basic tissue types?glandularCell connections that mechanically link cells together are calleddesmosomes.Epithelial cells- have a basement membrane which attaches to underlying tissues. - usually have a free surface, apical surface, which is not in contact with other cells. - cover body surfaces. - Blood vessel are not found in this tissue.Cell connections that allow electrical impulses that originate in one cell to continue to the adjacent cell, with no cell membrane barrier are calledgap junctions.The bottom edge of the epithelial tissue that abuts the basement membrane is called thebasal surface.The top edge of the epithelial tissue that faces the lumen is called theapical surface.Epithelium that consists of a single layer of cells, in which some cells are tall and thin and reach the free surface and others do not, is classified aspseudostratified epithelium.The most correct classification of an epithelial tissue consisting of a single layer of thin, flat cells is:simple squamous epithelium.The most correct classification of an epithelial tissue consisting of single layer of tall, narrow cells is:simple columnar epithelium.Epithelial cells that appear cube like when an organ is relaxed and flattened when the organ is distended by fluid are classified astransitional epithelium.The most correct classification of an epithelial tissue consisting of many layers of cells, in which the outer layers are flat and thin, and the basal layers are cuboidal or columnar is:stratified squamous epithelium.Exocrine glands.secrete substances onto a surface.A gland with branching ducts that expand into saclike structures is acompound acinar exocrine gland.endocrine glandssecrete hormones.Which connective tissue type has very little extracellular matrix between cells that are full of lipids?adipose tissueWhich of these connective tissue cells is NOT correctly matched with its function?osteocyte cells—store fatconnective tissuehas all of these characteristics.Major components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue includefibers and ground substance.Which connective tissue type is built from a scattered array of a mixture of collagen and elastic fibers within a gel-like ground substance?loose connective tissueWhen two or more tissue come together for a common function a/anan organ is formed.Which of the following is NOT a function of the integumentary system that provides protection for the body?provides water loss to get rid of waste productsWhich of the following is not a function of the integumentary system?Synthesize vitamin BEpidermis + Dermis =skinThis system consists of skin, hair, nails and exocrine glands.Integumentary systemThe stratum base layer of the epidermiscontains cells with prominent nuclei.The stratum corneum layer of the epidermis-consists of many layers of dead squamous cells joined by desmosomes. -consists of cornified cells surrounded by lipids. -produces dandruff when these cells are sloughed off by the scalp. i-s the most superficial of the epidermal layers.The lipid coated, keratinized cells of the stratum corneum formthe skin's permeability barrier.The cells of the stratum basale layer of the epidermisare actively dividing.Redness of the skin can occur fromall of the circumstances listed.A yellowish skin color could be the result ofliver damageWhich of the following statements about skin color is NOT true?A decrease in blood oxygen can produce cyanosis, a yellowish color in the skin.When exposed to the cold, the ears and nose may appear red. This is becauseblood vessels dilate to prevent tissue damage from the cold.Melaninis produced by melanocytes.Dermisconsists of collagen and elastic fibers.The dermisis responsible for most of the structural strength of the skin.Fingerprints and footprints are produced by dermal projections into the epidermis calledpapillae.The hypodermiscontains about half of the body's stored fat, contains blood vessels and nerves that need to reach the dermis.Scalp hairs are longer than eyelash hairs becausescalp hairs have a much longer growth cycle than eyelashes.A hair is formed or made by cells within thehair bulbThe nail grows from thenail matrix.Which of the following statements about hair is NOT correct?The hair root and shaft are made up of continuously dividing cells.