Upgrade to remove ads
US History 5 study guide
Terms in this set (64)
1) What is Manifest Destiny?
The idea spurs US to keep looking outward and expand, Americans feel this duty to civilize other nations not like America. An Ideology that Americans had developed while they were conquering the west in 1840s and 50s, ideology that held that God had preordained that Americans would possess all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
2) What was the Turner Thesis?
An argument put forward by historian Frederick Jackson Turner that the western frontier shaped America and helped with the development of democracy and capitalism. He argued that manifest destiny made American's think that it was natural to conquer other continents and countries.
3) Financial reasons for expanding beyond our borders (Connection between American business leaders & overseas expansion)
US businesses wanted to access overseas markets and materials. There was also an overproduction of goods and the solution was to create a new market, led politicians and business to advocate imperialism and US going overseas.
4) Religious and moral reasons for expanding beyond our border (Goals of Christian missionaries)
Christians wanted to convert people and wanted to bring progress and civilization. Josiah strong wrote 'Our County' and argued that white Christian Americans were at the top and had to bring the less privileged salvation by converting them.
5) The "White Man's Burden"
A Famous poem by Rudyard Kipling that urged American to embrace and support imperialism
6) Geopolitical reasons for expanding beyond our borders (Race against European countries)
European countries were racing to find resources in Asia and Africa brought their county profite and networks of commercial and military bases. US feared that, by not conquering those lands, they would lose access to world markets and power
7) Treaty of Wanghia opened up trade b/t the U.S. & China
An agreement between China and the United States, opening several Chinese ports to US trade
8) What happened in Japan in 1853? Significance?
US Navy appeared in Tokyo bay and forced Japan to open to the west, Japan wanted to stay isolated
9) How did we acquire the Samoa islands?
US claimed many small islands in the Pacific, the island chiefs in Samoa gave the US a naval base, Britain, Germany, and US sign treaty to occupy land together, then treaty is revised so US have control over eastern islands that then became US territory.
10) How did Secretary of State Seward justify his purchase of Alaska from Russia? Why was he criticized for this?
He said that Russia needed money, US needed more land for expansion, and Britain (who controlled Canada) needed to be warned off the continent. People criticized him because Alaska was very barren and isolated.
a. Why was the U.S. interested in Hawaii?
It had many resources and was a major object in US expansion in pacific.
b. Be able to put significant events between 1875 and 1893 in order.
1875- Signed trade agreement with US. 1887- Granted US right to build naval base at Pearl Harbor, US settlers staged non-violent coup to transfer power from Hawaiian monarchy to legislature to give more control to settlers. 1890- US tariff policy changed and gave exports from islands more duties, settlers urged US to annex Hawaii and grant its products exemption from tariffs. 1893- US rebels and navy troops from Pearl Harbor seized queen and declared provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. Rebels wanted US to annex Hawaii but were rejected by prez Grover Cleveland. Dole's rebels still remained in control of republic of Hawaii and fought for annexation
1898- Rebels succeeded when US remembered strategic importance of Pearl Harbor during Spanish American war. Congress approved of annexation and islanders became citizens in 1900.
12) Why was the U.S. interested in spreading its influence to Latin America?
It had rich resources and spared economic interest
13) Venezuela Crisis: How & why did the U.S. get itself involved in a conflict between Venezuela and Britain? Be sure to consider the Monroe Doctrine. What was the outcome?
Independent Venezuela was fighting with Britain over British Guinea border, Venezuela was supported by US's secretary of state (Richard Olney) and declared the situation under domain of Monroe Doctrine, stating that US was controlling power in western hemisphere. Britain backed off and Britain and US negotiated peacefully but didn't ask Venezuela.
14) Why did the U.S. decide to build a larger Navy? (2 reasons)
It was influenced by the North's use of navy during the Civil war and how the union blockaded several Confederate ports to cripple to south, and Mahan's arguments in 'The Influence of Sea Power in History'
15) Influence of Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power on History, 1660-1783
Alfred T Mahan, former civil war naval commander, wrote book and influenced many US military leaders. He published The Influence of Sea Power on History and argued that national greatness depended on how strong their navy was, wanted US to have warships to protect merchants and maintain overseas colonies while using 18th century Britain as a model.
16) U.S. arguments against imperialism
Americans were skeptical of annexation, democrats and populists said that annexing the Philippines violated US's anti-imperialist principles.
a. The Anti-Imperialist League
Opponents of overseas expansion, members included: Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, and Jane Addams.
b. Racist/Nativist reasons for anti-imperialism
Gompers opposed imperialism from a racist and nativist pov, he thought Filipino immigrants would flood US with cheap labor. Even though they were on opposite sides, both supporters and opposes of imperialism believed in the superiority of the white race and US civilization
17) The Election of 1900 - Who ran? What were their views on imperialism? Who won?
Bryan and McKinley. Bryan was anti-imperialist and didn't want US to annex the Philippines. The country had a good economy at the time, so people weren't interested in Bryan's arguments and McKinley won.
a. Fight between Americans and Emilio Aguinaldo/resistance fighters; outcomes
Aguinaldo launched war against US, US hastened to islands and fought from 1899 to 1902. Both sides tortured prisoners and in 1901, US captured Aguinaldo.
b. McKinley sends Taft
Taft was sent by McKinley to bring government to Philippines, and he persuaded Aguinaldo to call for peace.
c. Philippines declared U.S. territory
Fighting stopped a year later and 4,300 Americans died while 200,000 Filipinos died from fighting, disease, and starvation. Taft directed the creation of a new gov, US declared Philippines 'unorganized territory' and made Filipinos Us citizens
19) Platt Amendment in Cuba
It overruled the Teller Amendment and was added to the Cuban constitution, allowed US to militarily intervene on the island whenever revolution was threatened.
20) U.S. humanitarian assistance through imperialism
Many Americans wanted to help the people of the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam. US missionaries built churches and orphans, teachers built schools, and doctors built hospitals. Walter Reed cured yellow fever transmission. The government was still violent and deceitful though, and many of the countries under US control still hated America.
21) Roosevelt's foreign policy slogan
"Speak softly and carry a big stick" keep things calm but don't be afraid to be forceful.
22) Three major goals in Latin America
Open trade with China, build the Panama Canal, to police Latin America and protect American interests
23) "Open Door" policy with China
US Secretary of state Hay called for open door policy, allowed all nations to trade with China on equal terms. Boxer Rebellion- Chinese nationalists, known as boxers, attacked embassies in Beijing to get rid of foreigners. They were angry about growing influence of outside nations in China. US joins group of multinational forces to go in and put down rebellion in fear that Europe will use as an excuse to take over China. US convinces Europe to accept money for their losses rather than divide up China, they successfully stopped rebellion, other powers agree on open door policy.
a. Unsuccessful negotiations between U.S. & Columbia
US guaranteed that Panama belonged to Columbia in treaty. US and Columbian negotiations broke down over price of renting right to Canal Zone. US offered $ 10 million and $250,000 but Columbia refused.
b. Panamanian Revolt
President Roosevelt encourages an independence movement in Panama, they successfully revolt with the help of a US naval blockade that prevented Colombian troops and supplies getting in
c. Building the Canal
Ferdinand de Lesseps attempted to build the canal but went bankrupt because most of his workers died of yellow fever. Water Reed's work made yellow fever more manageable, and canal was completed in 1914.
d. Significance of the canal
It cut sailing distance between Atlantic and Pacific coasts from 15,000 to 5,000 miles.
25) The Roosevelt Corollary
He argued that Latin America's instability would hurt US interests and announced his own amendment to Monroe Doctrine. Allowed US to both prevent the colonization of LA by Europe and intervene when LA country's instability was hurting western hemisphere. Policy allowed Roosevelt to intervene in Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Haiti, and Mexico.
26) Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
Policy of using American troops to advance interests of US business community. US mining company in Nicaragua hated regime and wanted a coup, Taft sent out troops to support coup and helped bankers finance new regime, miners hated new regime too and Taft sent out more troops to support it.
27) Views/Opinions of Isolationists, Realists, & Idealists on the U.S.'s role in the world
Isolationists-thought US should return to isolationism and wanted to treat S-A war as an aberration
Realists- wanted US to become world power like Europe and thought that power and military strength was all that mattered in international affairs. If every other country is fending for themselves and pursuing their own interests then US should do same thing to compete with them.
Idealists- Woodrow Wilson, wanted US to enter world politics not as a competitor but as a moral reformer and use its influence to spread democracy and free trade rather than power.
1) Dates of World War I
1914 until 1918. US didn't enter the war until 1917.
a. Economic Competition in Europe
Europe was competing over establishing overseas empires. Two largest powers were Britain and Germany.
b. Alliances: Allied Powers & Central Powers
Allied: England, France, Russia
Central: Germany, Turkey, Austro-Hungarian Empire
• What happened on June 28, 1914?
Austria's Archduke Ferdiand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated by Gavrilo Princi, member of a Serbian nationalist group called Black Hand, wishing to drive Austro-Hungarians out of Serbia.
• How does this spark the alliances? (Who joins up with who?)
Austria declares war on Serbia, prompted Russia to help Serbians. Germany declares war on Russia and France. England declares war on Germany.
• Fighting spreads
Fighting spreads to other nations and European colonies in Africa, Asia, and Middle East join in.
3) Trench warfare
Germany invaded France and both sides dug deep webs of trenches just a few hundred feet apart.
4) "No Man's Land"
In between the trenches was a bullet-strewn strip of land.
5) New inventions for war
Industrial age weapons like machine guns, gas masks, poison gases, war planes, and tanks were invented.
6) Where was the Western Front? Where was the Eastern Front?
Western Front was in Northern France and Eastern Front was in Eastern Germany.
7) Who was the U.S. president when the U.S. entered the war? What was his message about American neutrality at the beginning of WWI?
Woodrow Wilson was president and he wanted US to remain 'impartial in thought as well as action'
8) How did the Allies stop U.S. goods from getting to the Germans? How did the Germans stop goods from getting to the Allies?
To stop supplies getting to Germany, Britain and France put mines in the North Sea, forcing US ships to British ports. British paid for the goods so they wouldn't make it to Germany. The Germans used U-boats to stop US supplies to get to Britain.
A primitive and effective submarine invented by the Germans and used extensively in WW1.
10) What happened in February 1917 that gave the Germans hope that they could continue to fight the Allies, even if the U.S. entered the war?
Russia, an allied power, negotiated peace.
11) Zimmerman Note: significance
Further Zimmerman, German foreign minister, sent note to Mexico promising Germany would support Mexican invasion of US to conquer NM, AZ, and TX. British intercepted note and gave it to US. The Zimmerman Note rallied American public support for war with Germany.
12) April 2, 1917
President Wilson asks Congress for declaration of war. Wilson claimed that US wouldn't fight to punish Germany, but create new international order.
13) Committee on Public Information - definition & examples of things they created
A group that recruited some of America's best artists to create and distribute millions of pieces of war propaganda. Four minute men created pro-war speeches and newspapers printed stories of German atrocities, posters urged Americans to buy liberty bonds, conserve food and coal, and do anything possible to beat enemy.
14) Who were the "hyphenated Americans"?
Gov officials were anxious about the loyalty of recent immigrants. (German-Americans, Irish-Americans, etc.) Committee of Public Information's 'Division for Work with the Foreign Born' urged recent immigrants to buy war bonds and show their support.
15) Espionage Act
Legislation that doled out large fines and 20 year jail terms to anyone protesting the draft or saying anything to impede war effort.
16) What role did U.S. soldiers play in the war?
They fought two major battles until Germany surrendered, some historians say that they didn't have much of an impact due to their delayed entry, some say that their entrance had a powerful psychological and military blow to Germans and helped end the war quicker.
17) What were Wilson's "Fourteen Points"? In other words, what were these ideas that Wilson hoped to implement after the war?
Declaration by President Wilson that outlined the principles he believed should shape the post-war peace settlement. Free trade, disarmament, freedom of the seas, surrendering of colonies, self-determination, set up a league of nations for peace keeping and prevention of future wars.
18) Armistice on November 11, 1918
Both sides singed an Armistice ending the war.
What was the treaty that ended WW1?
Treaty of Versailles
19) Who wanted to severely punish Germany, and why?
Allied Powers, they wanted to divide up Germany's overseas colonies.
a. What did Germany have to do?
Accept full responsibility for the war and pay heavy fines, self-determination for nationalities, create League of Nations. Those heavy fines destroyed the German economy.
b. League of Nations
It was powerless at first because US refused to participate because it might draw America into future European conflicts.
Because of the treaty, 4 empires crumpled and 9 new countries were formed.
21) Dissolution of the League of Nations
League met for the first time in the 1920s, but became irrelevant in 1930s. It was incapable of stopping WW2.
22) How was America at a crossroads after the war?
It continued to debate the importance of playing a role in world affairs.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
US History 5 review
Imperialism Cause and Effect
American Imperialism: Unit 2
U.S. History Ch.14 and Ch. 15 review
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ch 20 - The US Looks Overseas 1853-1915
Chapters 19-20-21 Review
APUSH DBQ Essay: Imperialism
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Portails Unite 7
Portails Unite 5
Potails Unite 4
Portails Unite 3
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
chem test 7
KNES 2168 L Practical 2
Chapter 24: The Digestive System