One of the four form classes, whose members act as modifiers of verbs, contributing information of time, place, reason, manner, and the like. Like adjectives, certain adverbs can be qualified (very quickly, rather fast); some can be inflected for comparative and superlative degree (more quickly, fastest); they have characteristic time, derivational endings such as -ly (quickly), -wise (lengthwise), -ward (backward). A feature of nouns and certain pronouns that denotes their function in the sentence. Pronouns have three case distinctions: subjective (I, they, who, etc.), possessive (my, their, whose, etc.), and objective (me, them, whom, etc.), Nouns have only one case inflection, the possessive (Johns, the cat's). The case of nouns other than the possessive is sometimes referred to as common case. One of the structure classes, which includes connectors that coordinate structures of many forms (e.g., and, or), subordinate sentences (e.g., if, because, when),
and coordinate sentences with an adverbial emphasis (e.g., however, therefore).
One of the structure-class words, a signaler of nouns. Determiners include articles a, the), possessive nouns and pronouns (e.g., Chuck's, his, my), demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those), indefinite pronouns (e.g., many, each, every), and numbers. A large category that includes quantifiers (~.eg., enough, several, many, much), universals (all, both, every, each), and partitives (e.g., any, anyone, anybody, either, neither, no, nobody, some, someone). Many of the indefinite pronouns can function as determiners. The role in the sentence of a noun phrase or pronoun when it functions as an object-direct object, indirect object, object complement, or object of a preposition. Although nouns do not have a special form for objective case, many of the pronouns do: Personal pronouns and the relative pronoun who have separate forms when
they function as objects: me, you, him, her, it, us, them, whom.
A structure-class word found in pre-position to-that is, preceding - a nominal. Prepositions can be classed according to their form as simple, or single-word (above, at, in, with, of, etc.), or phrasal (according to, along with, instead of, etc.). A conjunction that introduces a dependent clause and expresses the relationship of the clause to the main clause. Among the most common are: after, although, as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, even though. if, provided that, since, so that, though, till, until, when, whenever, whereas, while.