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59 terms

Kinetofragminphorea and Sporoozoea Parasites

Navy Pmt Parisitology test 2
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Malaria
Literally means "bad air" Either an acute chronic infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient(G6PD)
Persons lacking G6PD enzyme that protects the red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative attack
Hemolysis
Destruction of RBCs
Tenesmus
Spasmodic contraction of anal sphincter with pain and desire to empty bowel, along with involuntary or ineffectual straining efforts
Hepatocytes
Liver cells
Duffy factor
Is on RBCs and is the receptor for P. vivax
Sickle cell anemia
Hereditary conditon characterized by arthralgia, acute abdominal pain, and sickle shaped erythrocytes
What is a medically important distinguishing characteristic of Kinetofragminophorea
Have cilla on a portion of the cell or entire cell
What is a medically important distinguishing characteristic of Sporozoea
Possess both and asexual phases during development
Trophozoite
Vegetative, active, motile feeding and reporductive stage of protozoans
-easily killed by an unfavorable environment
Cyst
inactive state brought on by a secretion that creates a resistant membrane
Oocyst
The encysted stage of a parasite
Micro and Macro gametes
The conjugation of male and female forms produces a zygote
Sporozoite
A spore formed after fertilization,elongated,nucleated cells formed by the divison
Bradyzoite
Slowly reproducing cystic stage of Sporozoan parasite
Tachyzoite
Rapid asexually reproducing stage found in tissue
Zoitocyst
Stage in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii
Schizont
A collection of divided parasites which release merozoites
Merozoite
Stage of the parasite that differentiates into male and female gamete
Zygote
The fertilized egg
-formed from the union of male and female gametes
Male and female gametocytes
The MALE and FEMALE sexual forms of some sporozoan parasites
What is another name for Balantidiasis
Balantidiosis or Balantidial dysentery
What is the infectious agent of Balantidiasis
Balantidium coli(balantidium means "little bag")
What is the largest human intestinal protozoan
Balantidiasis aka Balatidiosis or Balantidial dysentery
What is the reservoir for Balantidiasis
swine and possibly rats
What is the most important stage in the life cycle of Balantidiasis
Encystation occurs, and passes cysts through feces
What are some signs and symptoms of Balantidiasis
Diarrhea/Dysentery which may contain blood and mucus, abdominal colic, tenesmus, nausea and vomitting
What is the treatment for Balantidiasis
Metronidazole
What is the infectous agent of Cryptospordiosis
Cryptosporidium parvum
What is the most important mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium
Fecally contaminated water or food
What is the period of communicability of Cryptosporidiosis
Remain infectious in a moist environment for 2-6 months or longer
How do you diagnosis Cryptosporidiosis
Identify oocysts in fecal smears
What is the infectious agent of Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasma gondii
What is the definitive host for Toxoplasmosis
Cat
What is the accidental host for Toxoplasmosis
Humans
What is an important mode of transmission for Toxoplasmosis
Ingest raw or undercooked meat
What is an important part of the life cycle of Toxoplasmosis in a cat
The host is infected by digesting Oocysts in dirt
What is the incubation period of Toxoplasmosis
From cat feces 5-20 days
What are some signs and symptoms of Toxoplasmosis
Resembles mononucleosis lymphadenopathy with lymphocytosis
-in a pregnant female early infection can cause fetal death
What is the treatment of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
Pyrimethamine
What are the infectious agents of Malaria
Plasmodium ovale: rarest form
Plasmodium malariae: Quartan
Plasmodium vivax: Benign tertian
Plasmodium falciparum: most feared and deadly form
What are some identifying characteristics of P.falciparum
Small, ring-shaped parasite located peripherally inside RBCs
What is the life cycle of malaria called in humans
Schizogony
What is the life cycle of malaria called in the mosquito
Sporogony
What is the incubation period for P.ovale
12-18 days
What is the incubation period for P. malariae
18-40days
What is the incubation period for P. vivax
12-18days
What is the incubation period of P. falciparum
9-14days
Once a mosquito is infected with malaria it is...
infected for life
Poorly untreated humans can remain infective to mosquitos
P.malariae- 3 or more years
P.vivax- 1-2 years
P.falciparum- not more than 1 year
Most black Africans have a natural resistance to...
P.vivax
How do you diagnose malaria
Peripheral blood test or thick and thin blood smear
What are IV medications for malaria
Quinine and Quinidine
What are some anti malarial drugs
Doxcycline, Tetracycline, Fansidar, and Mefloquine
What is the number one method of control for malaria
eliminate breeding sites for anopheline mosquitos
What is the commanding officers responsibility when it comes to the malaria control program
Ensure medical event report is submitted on all suspected and confirmed cases of malaria
What is the preventive medicine techs responsibility when it comes to malaria control program
Assist all medical department personnel in all aspects of malaria control, obtain vector information, conduct vector control measures
What are some methods of chemoprophylaxis for malaria
Chloroquine phosphate-1 tab weekly 1 week prior to entering area
Doxcycline-used in chloroquine resistant malaria areas 1 tab daily
Use terminal prophylaxis for...
28-30 days(4 weeks) after leaving area