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AP Psych Modules 4, 5, & 6
Terms in this set (25)
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding can be reproduced.
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
a flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample.
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
a statistical index of the relationship between two things
anything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure.
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
in an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
in an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study's results.
in an experiment, the outcome that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.
the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
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