Terms in this set (35)
Triangular TradeExchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North American colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. A small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade.Molasses ActTax on imported molasses passed by Parliament in an effort to squelch the North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to its widespread smuggling.ArminianismBelief that salvation is offered to all humans but is conditional on acceptance of God's grace. Different from Calvinism, which emphasizes predestination and unconditional election.Great AwakeningReligious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A second Great Awakening arose in the nineteenth century.Old LightsOrthodox clergymen who rejected the emotionalism of the Great Awakening in favor of a more rational spirituality.New LightsMinisters who took part in the revivalist, emotive religious tradition pioneered by George Whitefield during the Great AwakeningPoor Richard's AlmanackWidely read annual pamphlet edited by Ben Franklin. Best known for its proverbs and aphorisms emphasizing thrift, industry, morality, and common sense.Zenger TrialNew York libel case against John Peter Zenger. Established the principle that truthful statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel.Royal ColoniesColonies where governors were appointed directly by the king. Though often competent administrators, the governors frequently ran into trouble with colonial legislatures, which resented the imposition of control from across the AtlanticProprietary ColoniesColonies--Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware-- under the control of local proprietors who appointed colonial governors.1. Describe the demographic, ethnic and social character of Britain's colonies in the 18th century, and indicate how colonial society had changed since the 17th century.In the eighteenth century, there was a sharp population increase accompanied by a heavier reliance on slave labor • Americans were fairly youthful, with an average age of sixteen in 1775 • The ratio of American colonist to English subject drastically increased • There was an increased mingling of different races by the eighteenth century.2. Explain who the economic development of the colonies altered the patterns of social prestige and wealth, and brought growing class distinctions and class conflict to British North America.Greater class division in the US in the 1800's can be partially attributed to growing importance of commercial farming and growing role of merchants. As well as problems of rural overcrowding, rural poverty, and urban growth.3. Identify the major religious denominations of the 18th century colonies, and indicate their role in early American society.The supporters of the Awakening--Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists--became the largest American denominations by the end of the 18th century. Deism, which emphasized morality and rejected Christianity, found advocates among upper-class Americans4. Explain the causes of the Great Awakening, and describe its effects on American religion, education, and politics.Causes: Going to church became somewhat of a chore,where people would participate just to get the sermon over with, instead of a time to praise and have a love for God. People started to not believe as much, so people like Jonathan Edwards changed that. Effects: Religion reached a more personal level. The importance of public speaking and exciting religious literature reached a new level in the colonies. The Great Awakening opened the door for creativity in the religious realm. People were more inclined to help society as a result as well which plays in politics.5. Describe the origins and development of education, culture, and journalism in the colonies.In 1830, U.S. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, authorizing the govt to relocate most Native Americans from their homelands east of the Mississippi River to the West, to accommodate European-American expansion from the coastal United States.6. Describe the basic features of colonial politics, including the role of various official and informal political institutions.- Partially from the Enlightenment - ppl used reasoning & logic to improve society, law, government - searched for order and reason - Predestination did not make sense to some; NE preachers told disciples that they were going to Hell and had to work every day so they wouldn't be taken "today"... Led to personal responsibility of actions - Isaac Newton thought about/improved laws of science... Influenced people to think about WHY things happened ~ Partially from market revolution- having reading materials available to read/people becoming interested/people wanting to read them themselves - increased transatlantic trade: Americans had imported British goods- modeled British culture - read books about British lifestyle/what was going on in Britain so they could be similar to them - Newspapers came out /w interesting political views- contradictory to old beliefs7. Indicate the key qualities of daily existence in 18th century colonial America, including forms of socialization and recreation.Religion, Food and Drink, Clothing, Work, Recreation like hunting and fishing.1. What factors contributed to the growing numbers and wealth of the American colonists in the 18th century?Compared from where they previously lived America offered economic opportunity and religious toleration. This contribution from natural increase and immigration led to the growing of population. Because of this increase in population, a diverse society was created, not just in culture but in abilities. Different people from different places such as Germany, Ireland, and Africa all had different gifts. Some farmers, artisans, fisheries, manufactures, traders, iron builders, worked with wool, created furniture, etc. This diversity could be found in the North which greatly contributed to the 18th century economy because if one thing failed there was always something else to take it's place. On the contrary the South solely relied on plantations, but the slavery aspect and profiting without paying the workers, is why the profited plenty .2. Describe the structure of colonial society in the 18th century. What developments tended to make society less equal and more hierarchical?Most white Americans, and some free blacks were farmers and had a modest income. In cities a small class of skilled artisans existed as well as some unskilled day laborers. The colonial social ladder was very open for it's time, one can move up in society, a feature that was very uncommon in the Old World. The wars in the 1690s and early 1700s had enriched a number of merchant princes in the New England and middle colonies, these princes made society less equal as they lived in the lap of luxury. The war also left widows and orphans who depended on charity for their survival, thus children in this class had less financial aide to support their ascend through the classes. In the south riches from the slave population were not distributed evenly, wealth was concentrated in the hands of the largest slave owners, creating a large gap between the rich and the poor.3. What attitudes toward government and authority did 18th century Americans most commonly display. Cite specific developments or events that reflect these outlooks.Because England pretty much ignored the colonies up until the 1760s, when the finally decided to try to exert authority, the Americans had become used to ruling themselves and refused to be dictated to. After the Seven Years' War, Britain was badly in need of money and levied taxes and trade restrictions on the colonists--who, because of the war, had realized that they didn't need Britain's protection any more, and did not want to pay these taxes4. What were the causes and consequences of the Great Awakening? How was religious revival linked to the development of a sense of American uniqueness and identity?In late 17th Century England, fighting between religious and political groups came to a halt with the Glorious Revolution of 1688, an event which established the Church of England as the reigning church of the country. Other religions, such as Catholicism, Judaism, and Puritanism, were subsequently suppressed. Religion was only free in new world. Religion became something of a pastime in which people would "go through the motions" during religious services without deeply-felt convictions of the heart and soul. Through the Awakening, the Colonists realized that religious power resided in their own hands, rather than in the hands of the Church of England, or any other religious authority. After a generation or two passed with this kind of mindset, the Colonists came to realize that political power did not reside in the hands of the English monarch, but in their own will for self-governance5. What features of colonial politics contributed to the development of popular democracy, and what kept political life from being more truly democratic?Because the puritans did not like having the king rule the church, there was an already existence of separation of church and state. In addition to town hall meetings where freemen: talk about colonial problems and the voting is based on majority rules, general court, an attempt at the New England Confederation. In the south county government ruled, even though wealthy plantation owners had the most political power. What stopped these promising colonies from being more truly democratic was one the government was implemented to enforce God's laws, not that they were bad, but it's not democratic to enforce religion on others. Secondly most colonies were royal colonies with an appointed governor. Lastly people did not see each other as equal, some though because of their race they were naturally above others, thus Natives and Africans did not have any rights and were seen as property, also women were not seen as equal to men and therefore they had no say in society.6. What were Americans' essential attitudes toward education, professional learning, and higher forms of culture and science. Why were colonial newspapers and publications like Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack so popular?In the New England colonies, the Puritans built their society almost entirely on the precepts of the Bible. The Puritans, in particular, valued education, because they believed that Satan was keeping those who couldn't read from the scriptures. In the middle colonies, a variety of local religious groups ran most schools in the middle colonies and stressed the practical aspects of education. All boys learned a skill or trade. Depending on their social class, they might also study classical languages, history and literature, mathematics, and natural science. Girls were tutored at home in a variety of household and social skills. In the southern colonies, children generally began their education at home. Because the distances between farms and plantations made community schools impossible, plantation owners often hired tutors to teach boys math, classical languages, science, geography, history, etiquette, and plantation management. These publications told people about what was happening and contributed to social life. Poor Richard's Almanack was popular because it helped answer many everyday questions people might wonder. It also served as a calendar.7. Some historians claim that 18th century American society was actually becoming more European than it had been in the previous century, while others contend that developments like the Great Awakening and the rise of colonial assemblies made the colonies truly American for the first time. Which of these interpretations is more persuasive and why?The argument that colonists are becoming more American is more persuasive because of a variety of reasons. Americans are doing things they would never be able to do in England. They are practicing religious freedom. They are getting back to a deeper sense of faith. They are gradually taking more advantage of their self-government. They are becoming their own nation, as they soon officially will.8. Compare and contrast the social structure and culture of the 18th century with that of the 17th century (see chapter 4). In what ways was the 18th century society more complex and in what ways did it clearly continue earlier ideas and practices.Religion was taken more seriously in the 17th century, when there was religious persecution and strife. The 18th century witnessed the enlightenment, when rationality became more important (of course christianity continued, though). Monarchy was unchallenged in the 17th century but in the 18th century there was increased clamor for equality and rights, hence e.g. the french revolution. Yet monarchs remained in most european states.
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