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REVIEW OF KEY CONCEPTS
Terms in this set (12)
A state of metabolic balance. The body must maintain conditions in a narrow range. Loss of homeostasis leads to disease and death. Examples include temperature, pH, blood glucose, etc.
An exponential scale from 0 to 14, 1 being extremely acidic and 13.9 being extremely basic.
A narrow band that narrows between organs in the intestinal tract. Sphincters are like a one-way valve that prevents back flow.
What are the functions of the liver?
Super organ that does everything. Main site of protein and lipid metabolism, produces bile, and detoxifies toxins.
What are the major functions of the kidney?
Filters the blood that returns to the heart and is involved in the activation of vitamin D.
What are the major functions of the pancreas?
Major site of CHO metabolism. Controls blood glucose levels with insulin and glucagon. Produces amylases, proteases, and lipases for release into the small intestine, as well as bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid.
What are the major functions of red blood cells?
Hemoglobin-containing cells that carry O2 from the lungs to tissues, and return CO2.
What are the major functions of white blood cells?
Part of the body's immune defense system which attacks pathogens.
How is active transport different from passive transport? Give one example of each.
Active transport requires energy in the form of ATP, whereas passive transport requires no energy.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT: Glucose is absorbed by a special (membrane-bound) transport protein requiring energy.
PASSIVE TRANSPORT: Most electrolytes diffuse into the body with no energy required.
How is endocrine function different from an exocrine function? Give one example of each.
ENDOCRINE: Involves the release of substances into the blood. The pancreas releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
EXOCRINE: Involves the release of substance outside of the body. The pancreas releases digestive enzymes into the small intestine.
What are the names of the 3 major parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, Jejunum, & Ileum
What do the following terms refer to: Hepatic? Gastric?
Hepatic = liver functions
Gastric = stomach
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