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Mastering A&P Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (44)
Which of the following best explains diffusion?
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Which of the following is most likely to move through the cell membrane by facilitated diffusion?
Na+ Ions move easily through water, which is polar, but cannot pass directly through the lipid (nonpolar) part of the cell membrane.
What is the basic difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion across a cell membrane?
In facilitated diffusion, molecules only move with the aid of a protein in the membrane.
Which of the following is least likely to increase the rate of diffusion?
small concentration gradient
Which of the following is not required for osmosis to occur?
Which of the following solutions contains the most solute?
"Hyper" means "high," so a hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration than the solution to which it is being compared.
In general, to maintain homeostasis the relationship between our intracellular and extracellular fluids should be which of the following?
isotonic to each other
In order to prevent the cells from either swelling or shrinking, the body fluids should be isotonic, meaning that they are at equilibrium.
If a person is severely dehydrated, their extracellular fluids will become hypertonic to the intracellular fluid. What do you predict will happen to the person's cells?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
The hypertonic extracellular fluid will draw water out of the hypotonic intracellular fluid, so the cells will shrink. This is called crenulation.
A primary active transport process is one in which __________.
molecules move through transport proteins that have been activated by ATP
Some transport processes use transport proteins in the plasma membrane, but do not require ATP. This type of transport is known as _____.
The majority of water molecules moving across plasma membranes by osmosis do so via a process that is most similar to ____.
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This statement describes _____.
primary active transport
A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the extracellular fluid. This statement describes _____.
What happens when body cells are placed in a hypertonic solution?
Water leaves the cells and the cells shrink.
What type of membrane junction allows ions to pass directly from the cytoplasm of one cell to the cytoplasm of the adjacent cell?
Which of these components add specialized functions to the plasma membrane?
What part of the plasma membrane is hydrophobic?
What process permits absorption of glucose into cells?
What transport process can create a concentration gradient for sodium across the plasma membrane?
Which cell junctions prevent substances from passing between adjacent cells?
What process does water use to move across the plasma membrane?
Type of active transport in which sodium and potassium are pumped across a membrane using ATP
Type of passive process in which water is moved through aquaporins
Type of passive process in which molecules move across the plasma membrane down a concentration gradient
Type of active process in which the cell engulfs extracellular substances by phagocytosis or pinocytosis
The phospholipid tails are ________, which make the plasma membrane impermeable to water.
The membrane connections that prevent the leaking of fluid between cells are called ________.
The passive process that involves the movement of water through aquaporins is ________.
What assists the movement of substances by facilitated diffusion?
protein carrier or channel
What is required for osmosis to occur?
Passive processes that move substances across membranes ________.
do not require ATP
By what endocytosis process do some white blood cells engulf bacteria?
What is required for diffusion to occur?
What are two types of endocytosis?
phagocytosis and pinocytosis
A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is ________ to the cell.
Which of the following substances must travel across a membrane via facilitated diffusion?
Which of the following processes require the use of protein carrier molecules?
facilitated diffusion and solute pumping
A cell is isotonic to the surrounding 4% dextrose solution. If the cell is moved to a 6% dextrose solution, then predict what will happen to the cell.
The cell will shrink.
Which of the following is the main component of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is a characteristic of the cell membrane?
Which of the following is not a major function of proteins in the cell membrane?
forming the entire glycocalyx
What part of a cell membrane is usually in contact with the interstitial fluid?
phosphate heads of phospholipids
What is required for filtration to occur?
What separates the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid?
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