5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Heat Production
- Rate of Heat Loss
- Heat Conservation
- a Transfer of heat from the body by currents (air and water).
- b Increased by thermogenesis: Shivering and Chemical.
- c 60% of heat loss. Molecular motion produces infra red which the body releases in all directions.
- d Sympathetic nerves stimulated: dermal vasoconstriction and stimulated arrector pilli.
- e Depends on the speed of heat transfer from body core to skin to ambient environment.
5 Multiple choice questions
- potassium, magnesium, phosphates, and proteins (synthesized by the cells)
- Painful muscle spasms due to excessive electrolyte loss in sweat.
- Heat Conservation and Heat Production
- Caused by sever electrolyte loss, hypotension, dizziness, vomiting, and fainting. Leads to decreased blood pressure, cardiac output, organ failure, and death.
- Fever at 108°: metabolic rate increases → more heat generated → further rise in body temp (repeat); temperature around 113° is fatal (body's proteins denature).
5 True/False questions
Phospholipid Bilayer → Low permeability to water-soluble substances (e.g. ions, glucose, and amino acids), but permeable to lipid-soluble substances (e.g. fatty acids, oxygen, and carbon dioxide).
Aldosterone (Sweating) → This kidney targeted hormone allows an acclimatized person to sweat 2-3 L/hr while minimizing the loss of salt.
Useful Positive Feedback Examples → Labor and delivery: baby's head on cervix → impulse to brain → stimulated pituitary → oxytocin secreted → uterine muscle contraction → more pressure on cervix (repeat); ends after placenta delivered.
Hemostasis (blood clotting): [vessel ruptures] collagen fibers attract blood platelets → platelets attract clotting factors (Hageman factor) → prothrombin → thrombin → fibrinogen → fibrin → attracts more platelets (repeat).
Nerve impulse: depolarization at one Na channels causes a cascade (repeat).
Endocrine System → System comprised of eight ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood to regulate the target organ function.
Flush → Crisis of fever occurring at the end of febrile condition. Patient has 105 °F temperature, hypothalamus trying to maintain 98.6 °F and is still hot, leads to intense sweating and vasodilatation causing the skin to be hot.