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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Three Components of Feedback Loop
  2. Phospholipid Bilayer (Functions)
  3. Primary Secretion
  4. Conduction
  5. Chills
  1. a The original secretion of the sweat gland's coiled duct. Devoid of proteins, NaCl ions are reabsorbed. All salt reabsorbed when sweat gland stimulation is slight, only half when stimulation is strong.
  2. b Pyrogens increase hypothalamic thermostat set point suddenly initiating a cascade of events: dermal vasoconstriction, shivering, piloerection, hot sensation due to chemical thermogenesis.
  3. c Receptor; Control Center; Effector
  4. d * Hydrophobic tails provide a barrier to the movement of polar molecules between ICF and ECF
    * Packed hydrophobic tails in a thin space imparts electrical capacitance to the neuronal membrane
    * Framework of bilayer allows orientation of integral proteins in specific manners so that channels and gates can be formed
  5. e 18% of heat loss. The direct transfer of body heat through direct contact. 3% lost from body to other objects, 15% heat lost to air. This can occur in either direction depending on the ambient temperature.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Epinephrine, nor epinephrine, and thyroxin cause uncoupling to occur reducing the number of ATP's produced in the electron transport in the aerobic pathway. Fewer ATP's results in greater heat (26 less ATP * 7.3 kcal / ATP = 189.9 kcal of heat). Infants can double heat production; adults can have a 10-15% increase.
  2. The fluid surrounding the cells and is the internal environment of the body - the internal milieu; constantly circulating through the blood and lymph vessels, and into the spaces between the tissue cells; contains nutrients, ions and gases necessary for the survival of the body cells.
  3. Increased by thermogenesis: Shivering and Chemical.
  4. Organ which is the body's thermostat by monitoring the temperature of the blood and signals it receives from the body's cold - hot receptors. It can respond to temperature changes as small as 0.01 °C. Regulates body core to 98.6 - 99.7 °F.
  5. Interstitial fluid (tissue fluid between cells); Blood Plasma; Lymphatic Fluid; Pleural Fluid; Pericardial Fluid; Cochlear and Ocular fluids; and the fluid in the tunic of the testes.

5 True/False questions

  1. ConvectionTransfer of heat from the body by currents (air and water).


  2. Plasma Volume(Intracellular fluid component) ~3.5 liters in adults


  3. Chemical Thermogenesis Long-Term EffectIncreased metabolic rate (20-30%), more nutrients utilized, more calories consumed.


  4. Claudius Galen (130-216 AD)Animal dissector; circulation of the blood through the chambers of the heart, arteries carry blood not air; contributed to the understanding of the nervous system; first to describe the functions of the brain, the role of nerve cells and the spinal cord in sensory and motor functions.


  5. Useful Positive Feedback ExamplesLabor and delivery: baby's head on cervix → impulse to brain → stimulated pituitary → oxytocin secreted → uterine muscle contraction → more pressure on cervix (repeat); ends after placenta delivered.

    Hemostasis (blood clotting): [vessel ruptures] collagen fibers attract blood platelets → platelets attract clotting factors (Hageman factor) → prothrombin → thrombin → fibrinogen → fibrin → attracts more platelets (repeat).

    Nerve impulse: depolarization at one Na channels causes a cascade (repeat).