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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Aristotle (384-322 BC)
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
  3. Heat Production
  4. Evaporation
  5. Total Blood Volume
  1. a Increased by thermogenesis: Shivering and Chemical.
  2. b 22% of heat loss. Sweat glands and exhalation provide liquid. Water off skin and out of lungs occurs at a rate of 450-600 mL/day = 12-16 kcal/hour of heat.
  3. c Greek; supernatural causes - theologi; natural causes - physiologi; recognized that blood "percolates" through the kidneys.
  4. d Part of the nervous system that has no firsthand knowledge and needs input. Comprised of brain and spinal cord.
  5. e ~ 5.1 liters in adults

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Labor and delivery: baby's head on cervix → impulse to brain → stimulated pituitary → oxytocin secreted → uterine muscle contraction → more pressure on cervix (repeat); ends after placenta delivered.

    Hemostasis (blood clotting): [vessel ruptures] collagen fibers attract blood platelets → platelets attract clotting factors (Hageman factor) → prothrombin → thrombin → fibrinogen → fibrin → attracts more platelets (repeat).

    Nerve impulse: depolarization at one Na channels causes a cascade (repeat).
  2. Long-term mechanism for generating body heat. Sympathetic nerves produce epinephrine and nor epinephrine and release into blood, and the thyroid releases thyroxin. Increased cellular metabolism and metabolic rate.
  3. (Intracellular fluid component) ~3.5 liters in adults
  4. Occurs in four ways: radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation.
  5. Crisis of fever occurring at the end of febrile condition. Patient has 105 °F temperature, hypothalamus trying to maintain 98.6 °F and is still hot, leads to intense sweating and vasodilatation causing the skin to be hot.

5 True/False questions

  1. Aldosterone (Sweating)Nerve impulse from anterior hypothalamic preoptic area → Spinal cord → Sympathetic nerves → Sweat glands in the skin → Sweat secretion

    Note: sweat glands innervated by cholinergic fibers, epinephrine and nor epinephrine also influence sweat secretion (import for losing heat during exercise)


  2. ECF (Composition %)Body composed of 40% of {this} fluid


  3. ReceptorOrgan or tissues that receive information (output) from the control center and produces a response.


  4. Ibn Sina (980-1037)Protective mechanism caused by infection, trauma, brain tumor, drug reaction, etc. Fatal if core temperature reaches 108 °F (positive feedback loop starts: increased temp → increased metabolic rate → increased body heat → repeat) and 111-113 °F fatal.


  5. HypothalamusPyrogens increase hypothalamic thermostat set point suddenly initiating a cascade of events: dermal vasoconstriction, shivering, piloerection, hot sensation due to chemical thermogenesis.


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