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Ch 11 Conditioning Final
Terms in this set (40)
What is chronic disease?
A medical condition that develops gradually and persists for months or years
What are the common chronic diseases?
chronic lung disease
What four behaviors cause chronic diseases?
lack of exercise
drinking too much alcohol
What is insulin?
a pancreatic hormone needed to convert sugar and other substances into energy
What is the inability to properly produce or use insulin?
What is type 1 diabetes?
an auto-immune disease that destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, compromising the bodies ability to make insulin and properly regulate blood sugar
What is type 2 diabetes?
a disease linked to obesity and inactivity in which the body loses its ability to respond to insulin and cannot properly regulate blood sugar
What is pre-diabetes?
a condition marked by blood glucose levels that are higher than normal but not yet diabetic
What is autoimmune disease?
a disorder in which the bodies immune system creates antibodies that attack the persons own living cells
What is hyperglycemia?
a result of type 2 diabetes - elevated glucose levels in the blood and urine
What percent of adults with diabetes have type 2?
Hoe many adults over the age of 65 have type 2 diabetes?
1 in 4
What is gestational diabetes?
diabetes during pregnancy
What are 2 common diabetes symptoms?
What are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes?
Age between 35 and 64
High BMI (30 or above)
Family history of type 2 diabetes
Gestational diabetes during pregnancy
Ethnic status (Native Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasian or Asian Americans)
A medical diagnosis of prediabetes
How can you lower your risk for type 2 diabetes?
Monitor doctors recommendations
eat healthy: 5-9 servings of daily fruits and vegetables; limit saturated fats, refined carbohydrates, and sugars
What is the third leading cause of death in the united states?
What does lung disease include?
chronic diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis
What is asthma?
a chronic disease in which the lungs airways swell, restricting airflow
What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
a progressive lung disease that causes breathing difficulties; includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis
What are chronic bronchitis and emphysema mainly due to?
What is emphysema?
A type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involving damage to the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs
What is chronic bronchitis?
A type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by inflammation of the main air passages (bronchi) in the lungs
How do you reduce the risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
Monitor air quality and adjust your exposure.
Avoid colds, flu, and infections.
Get flu shots
Observe basic wellness principles
Don't let shortness of breath prevent you from exercising. Get medical supervision, start slowly, and build up gradually. Exercise is key for lung function.
What is osteoporosis?
A chronic degenerative bone disease characterized by diminished bone mass and porous, brittle bones.
How many americans older than age 50 have osteoporosis or early signs of it?
over half (55%)
What race and sex is osteoporosis most common in?
asian and caucasian women over 50
Which individuals are at a greater risk for having osteoporosis?
Female, thin, or older than age 50
Older than age 50 and have broken a bone
Have a low bone mass reading
Have a close relative with the disease
What are the four groups of risk factors for osteoporosis?
Genetic: a relative diagnosed with the disease
Hormonal - diminishing levels of estrogen; greater risk after menopause; premature end to period (exercise, diet, or illness related)
Nutritional - need calcium and vitamin D
What is arthritis?
inflammation of joints, typically accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness
What are the two most common types of arthritis?
Oseteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
What is osteoarthritis?
A type of arthritis characterized by stiffness, aching, swelling, or permanent deformation and dysfunction of a joint, caused primarily by wear and tear
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
A type of arthritis characterized by chronic inflammation, swelling, and pain in a joint brought about by an autoimmune attack
Which is more common, rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis?
What increases your risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis?
if a close family member has asthma, lupus, or type 1 diabetes.
Which gender has a higher risk of getting rheumatoid arthritis?
Women - genes on the X chromosome
What is the most controllable risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis?
How many more times likely are you to develop osteoarthritis than rheumatoid arthritis?
What are the risk factors for osteoarthritis?
advanced age - 2/3rds in 40-65 year olds, by age 85 half of adults have it in their knees
obesity - extra weight adds pressure on weight-bearing joints
hormone deficiency - especially in women after menopause
vitamin deficiency - vitamin D promotes healthy cartilage
What are good strategies to avoid getting arthritis?
avoid hard-hitting activities and get the proper amount of vitamin D and consult a doctor about potential hormonal deficiencies.
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