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Arts and Humanities
Language Contact & Change
Terms in this set (32)
When speakers of different languages come into contact directly or indirectly.
Reasons: conquest, migration, trade, globalization, geography
When both languages in contact have equal prestige/power.
Both have equal influence over the other.
Language of the dominant group
Language of the subordinate group
When different languages (adstratum) become similar in structure
When speakers of substratum language shifts over to speak language of superstratum, abandoning their own language.
When there are no more speakers of that language & it dies
Borrowing words & phrases.
Results from low intensity contact
When no native terms exist, so a word w/ a new concept is borrowed from another language.
Exceptions: core vocabulary & grammatical inflections
Calques (Loan Translations)
Translating a whole phrase word by word from another language, even if the translated structure ends up being weird
Borrowing linguistic features.
(Phonological: borrowing phonemes & rules from French
Morphological: borrowing Latin endings & affixes)
Develop when speakers of no common language come into contact with the need to communicate.
(Not the primary language for them)
Structure of Pidgins
Simplified, basic, mix of elements from languages in contact, small lexicon, words have meanings extended, compounds to increase lexicon w/o having to make new words, phonology is simplified (sounds taken out), reduplication to avoid homophones & plural, almost no affixes
Often arise from pidgins, but acquired as a native/primary language.
(The primary language)
Structure of Creoles
Fully formed, complex, stable grammars.
All Creoles have similar structures.
Language is constantly changing.
It's not bad/decay/corruption.
Language variation in a single/specific period of time
Language variation over time
A change in pronunciation over time
Conditioned (sound) Change
When pronunciation only changes in certain environments
Unconditioned (sound) Change
When pronunciation changes no matter the environment
Phonetic (sound) Change
Change in allophones/pronunciation of sounds
Phonemic (sound) Change
Change in phoneme inventory
(ex: [v] is added as its own
Great Vowel Shift
Between Middle English to Modern English (1400-1700)
Long vowels shifted upwards in height, high vowels shifted down to diphthongs.
Happened in 300 years.
Proportional Analogy (morphological change)
When a form change to be more like another form, usually to make a pattern more regular
(ex: climb --> climbed)
Back Formation (morphological change)
Creation of a new base form by removing a misanalysed affix
(ex: "pease" --> "pea" + "s")
Change in meaning of words
Extensions (semantic change)
Meaning extended to mean more things (new referents)
Reductions (semantic change)
Meaning narrowed to mean less things (less referents)
Elevations (semantic change)
Meaning changes to be more positive
Degradations (semantic change)
Meaning changes to be more negative
Changes in syntactic structures over time
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ASL Sign Language
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