Counselors can use these when they are trying to find solutions for a client's problem or to help a client find a solution - they can use these in order to guide them in their hypothesizing.
Why Theory is important
important for helping a counselor formulate an approach & framework for client's needs/situations. It helps explain what happens in a counseling relationship and assists the counselor in predicting, evaluating and improving results.
How do we know a Theory is good?
it is good when it makes sense/ is clear, includes a broad enough spectrum/comprehensive, generates more research, gives a way to achieve goals, helps the people it is meant to help.
when a counselor uses various theories and techniques to match their client's needs with an average of 4.4 theories making up their therapeutic work.
A Viennese psychiatrist, he is the person primarily associated with psychoanalysis, especially the classical school of thought.
further elaborated the theory of psychoanalysis, especially as it relates to children and development of defense mechanisms.
comprised of amoral basic instincts and which operates according to the pleasure principle
the conscious, decision-making "executive of the mind", which operates according to the reality principle
the conscience of the mind that contains the values of parental figures and that operates according to the moral principle.
psychosexual developmental stages
oral, anal (delight from withholding or eliminating), phallic stage (chief zone of pleasure is the sex organs), latency (energy is focused on peers, cog. learning, physical skills), genital stage (where each gender takes interest in the other and "normal" heterosexual patterns of interaction appear.
Ways of coping with anxiety on the unconscious level by denying or distorting reality ie. repression,
this theory emphasizes the holistic and indivisible nature of people - differs from psychoanalytic focus on biological drives and stresses importance of subjective feelings and social interest. Birth order and family environment are also important to this theory.
founder of Adlerian approach to counseling, contemporary of Sigmund Freud - his theory is more hopeful.
Each person initially feels inferior to others. If this feeling is not overcome, the person develops this and if not changed, becomes the basis by which one's personality is defined.
a person who overcompensates for feelings of inferiority develops this, otherwise known as a neurotic fiction that is unproductive.
focuses on the potential of individuals to actively choose and purposefully decide about matters related to themselves and their environments.
Freud, Erikson, Jung
reconstruct the personality rather than solve immediate problems; focus on the past and analyze the aspects of the unconscious that are manifested in present behavior
the result of failing to meet some critical developmental task or becoming fixated at somem early level of development
stages of psychosexual development
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
neurotic personality development
incomplete resolution of one of the stages of psychosexual development
(psychoanalytic) permitting the client to say whatever come to mind in order to reveal the unconscious
strengths and contributions of Freud's theory
benefits are first theory/framework for exploring a person's history, resolving resistance to therapy
analysis and interpretation resistance or transference
(psychoanalytic) therapist interprets to the client the significance of resistance or transference
limitations to Freud's theory
prolonged training, lengthy period of therapy, importance of action is not realized, not measurable, does not take into account social, cultural, and interpersonal variables, cannot be used in crisis counseling
clt is angry and someone and takes it out on the clr
this theory focuses on social interests as well as the importance of developing a healthy style of life. Stresses the importance of subjective feelings - more hopeful than psychoanalysis
main tool of adlerian theory, questionnaire about the clt's family, memories, dreams, and self-concepts, explores birth order and interaction
therapist's role in adlerian therapy
a guide, responsibility is placed on the client & a contract may be completed
Strenths and contributions of Adlerian therapy
it's benefits are that cnslr approach clients with an educational orientation and have an optimistic outlook on life. It is versatile over the lifespan and is useful for treatment of a variety of disorders
limitations of Adler's theory
inability to validate concepts, oversimplification of complex human functioning
Skinner, Pavlov, Bandura,
goals of behavior therapy
eliminate negative learned behavior; goals should be mutually agreed-on, specific, concrete, with specific problems,
role of counslr in behavior theory
Active in sessions, helps clnt learn/unlearn/relearn specif. ways of behaving. Functions as consultant, teacher, advisor, reinforcer, facilitator - operates from broad perspective & involves client in every phase of counseling
techniques that can be used with behavior theory
reinforcement, modeling, assertive training, generalization, extinction, punishment etc.
Strengths & contributions of behavior theory
techniques are based on empirical research, treatment is based on the assessment of ind. needs, effective on short-term, focus on here and now, saves time and money
limitations of behavior theory
success depends upon the ability to control environmental factors, danger of imposing conforming behaviors, does not address philosophical problems, cnslr could direct towards own personal goals, past history may not be considered important
founder of rational-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT)
clients explore reasons for their behavior and seek to understand the ramifications of such behavior
Ellis, Beck, Meichenbaum
REBT view of human nature
irrational beliefs - people are inherently rational and irrational - sensible and crazy. People have means to control thoughts/feelings/actions but must first realize SELF TALK which requires personal, conscious awareness.
the approach that serves as the basis for REBT: Actual event, Belief system, Consequences, Dispute irrational thoughts, Effective new philosophies
Limitations of REBT
cannot be used effectively with individuals who have mental problems (Schizophrenics), may be too closely related to founder Albert Ellis, too direct, emphasis on changing thinking may not be simplest way to help clients
Strengths and Contributions of REBT
clear, easily learned, can easily be combined with other behavioral techniques , short term, lots of literature and research based on REBT
founder of Reality Theory (CBT)
Reality Theory assumes
assumes that we are in charge of our lives, we choose our forms of behavior, and that behavior is directed towards increasing self-esteem, increasing belonging, power, freedom, and fun. About CONSCIOUSNESS
(Reality theory) 4 needs that drive us
belonging, power, freedom, and fun
cbt is used for
depression, anxiety, and phobic behavior
Role of Counsellor in Reality Therapy (CBT)
is one of concern, support, warmth, involved with clt in positive way, not accepting excuses for inappropriate behavior, and continuosly prodding and pushing to help the clt accept the reality and responsibility for her actions
goals of Reality Therapy (CBT)
1) help client become psychologically strong, rational, realize they have choices 2) help clients clarify what they want in life - vital for persons to be aware of life goals if they are to act responsibly 3) make a plan.... also focus on behavior and the present.
model of reality-therapy (cbt)
(reality) wants, direction, evaluation, planning and commitment
limitations of Reality therapy
consideration not given to feelings, unconscious, and past, influence of culture and environment not taken into account, origins of behavior not considered, lack of research to establish effectiveness
Strengths and contributions of Reality Therapy
benefits are clt is responsible in evaluating behavior, change that behavior, and determine the types of behavior to be changed, clt is the catalyst in making specific plans, forming contracts for action and evaluating success of the actions, emphasis is accountablility, structure to evaluate the degree and nature of the changes effected, short-term clear and simply understood therapy that is applicable to different situations and all clients
strengths & contributions of cbt
benefits are that clg is brief, practice is emphasized, clts ability to control destiny, dialogue helps clt to change behavior, clts accept responsibility, good for crisis situations
limitations of cbt
reason for irrational beliefs is not explored, clt of low intelligence might not understand dialogue, clr could impose personal views, emotional issues are nto explored
Created by V. Frankl people as the author of their lives, experiential and philosophical, focuses on freedom, isolation, death, choices, and meaninglessness
assumption of existential therapy
we are free and therefore responsible for our actions and the results of those actions and choices, authors of our lives not the victims of circumstances
goals of existential therapy
help clts become aware they are free to expand this awareness to increase options on the basis of their freedom to choose other options, accept responsibility of those choices to recognize the factors that hinder their freedom to choose, and become all they are capable of being
Strengths and contributions of existential therapy
benefits are clt-clr relastionship is based on the humanity of the ind, stresses continued human growth, focuses on issues important to attaining life satisfaction through choices
limitations of existential therapy
lack of systematic procedure, concepts are difficult to comprehend, no scientific research, lower functioning clts, those in crisis, and others may not benefit
Frankl, Yalom, May
founder of person-centered / Humanistic Theories
assumption of person-centered therapy
ind have internal resources to work toward wholeness and self-actualization and can move forward constructively on their own
goal of person-centered therapy
center around client as a person, not problem. assist ppl w learning how to cope - help clnt become fully functioning person - no need for defense mechanisms - more open to experience. Client helped to identify, use and integrate their own potential & resources.
clr role in person-centered therapy
create an atmosphere of empathy, acceptance, warmth, and caring, unconditional positive regard, congruence (genuineness)
three characteristics of clr for person-centered therapy
clr is not an expert providing advice, relationship-centered rather than technique-centered, clt assumes responsibility for the direcition of the therapy, person needs to account for his inner experience research validated
limitation of person-centered therapy
this approach depends on bright, insightful, hard-working clients for best results. It ignores diagnosis, the unconscious - might be overly optimistic. Only deals with surface issues - doesn't encourage deeper explorations.
(pct) counselor demonstrate true genuineness
(pct) movement emphasizing freedom, choice, values, growth, self-actualization, becoming, spontatneity, creativity, play, humor, and psychological health
(pct) clt is the one who knows himself and should not be in the passive role, clt leads therapy
(pct) discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self-concept and the experience of anxiety and awareness of the existence of a problem
clr to be aware his feelings. needs, and values in order to not attempt to control the clt but allow the clt to tap into their own source of self-direction
development of one's potential and the basis of people being trusted to resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationship
Gestalt Therapy view of human nature
human beings work for wholeness/completeness in life. We have self-actualizing tendency. Centred in the present. Persons are more than the sum of their parts. NOW is what really matters.
gestalt theory says that the most frequent cause of unfinished business is
Goals of gestalt therapy
emphasis on here and now, recognition of IMMEDIACY of experience, helping client resolve past to become integrated. Coming together of emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects and acceptance of polarities within the person
Strengths & contributions of Gestalt therapy
de-emphasizing the intellectualizations of problems, a brief therapy which works with past to recognize past, works with dreams to increase awareness of unconscious, focuses on experiencing rather than just talking about the problems, can be used in groups, schools and classrooms, workshops and in counseling sessions
limitations of Gestalt therapy
little theoretical underpinnings, ignores cognitive factors, clr can direct therapy, lack of research
(gestalt) cnslr points to client's incongruent behaviors and feelings - asking what and how questions
(gestalt) client talks to various parts of their personality in the empty chair such as the part that is dominant/passive to deal with dichotomies within the self.
disowning the parts of ourselves and blaming them on the environment
Founded Gestalt Therapy and popularized it both through his flamboyant personality and his writings.
centred in the present, it is the process of being what one is and not a process of striving to become.
Top Dog (Gestalt)
what one thinks one should do
what one wants to do.
people acquire new knowledge and behavior by observing other people and events without engaging in the behavior themselves and wihtout any direct consequences to themselves - ie. does not require active participation.
those events that, when they follow a behavior, increase the probability of the behavior repeating. These may either be positive or negative.
elimination of a behavior because of a withdrawal of its reinforcement. Few individuals will continue doing something that is not rewarding.