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number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year; US is 78 years
Cellular Clock Theory
Leonard Hayflick's theory that the maximum number of times that human cells can divide is about 75-80; as we age our cells have less capability to divide
DNA sequences that cap chromosomes, each time a cell divides, these become shorter, after 70-80 replications these are dramatically reduced and the cell no longer can reproduce
Free Radical Theory
a microbiological theory of aging that states that people age because inside their cells normal metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules that ricochet around inside cells, damaging DNA and other cellular structures
the theory that again is caused by the decay of mitochondria, tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for function, growth and repair
Hormonal Stress Theory
the theory that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease
average brain loses 5%-10% of its weight between the ages of 20 and 90, brain volume also decreases; both physical and intellectual performance are affected- 90 most reflexes are much slower; reduction in neurotransmitters like acetylcholine and dopamine
Middle Aged Adults Causes of Death
65-74 years old; cancer is leading cause of death, and then heart disease
clarified the distinction between those aspects of the aging mind that show decline and those that remain stable or even improve
the "hardware" of the mind, reflecting the neurophysiological architecture of the brain, cognitive mechanisms involve the speed and accuracy of the processes involving sensory input, comparison, and categorization; this declines
the "software programs" of the mind, includes reading, writing, language, comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and skills that help us cope with life; this improves
the retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings; old people think they know more about when they grew up than what happened last week, really their mind is making things up
a person's knowledge about the world- including a person's field of expertise, general academic knowledge and everyday knowledge; starting a car, playing chess, capitol of Peru; take longer to retrieve this information, but can retrieve it
a mood disorder in which the individual is deeply unhappy, demoralized, self-derogatory and bored, the person does not feel well, loses stamina easily, has poor appetite and is listless and unmotivated; "common cold" of mental disorders
a global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptoms involve a deterioration of mental functioning
a progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually physical function; deficiency of acetylcholine- exciteatory neurotransmitter
dense deposits of protein that accumulate in the blood vessels which causes Alzheimer disease
a chronic, progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis; triggered by degeneration of dopamine- producing neurons in the brain, needed for normal bring functioning; L-Dopa is given to treat the symptoms
Integrity vs Despair
Erikson's eighth and final stage of development in late adulthood, involves reflecting on the past and either piecing together a positive review or concluding that one's life has not been well spent
the theory that the more active and involved older adults are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives
a neurological definition of death, a person considered this when all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time; a flat EEG recording is one criterion of this
"easy death"- the act of painlessly ending the lives of persons who are suffering from incurable diseases or severe disabilities; sometimes called "mercy killing"
withholding available treatments, such as life-sustaining devices which allows the person to die
death induced deliberately, like by injecting a lethal dose of a drug; crime in most countries and states, except Washington and Oregon- passed Death with Dignity Act
a program committed to making the end of life as free from pain, anxiety, and depression as possible; the goals of hospice contrast with those of a hospital, which are to cure disease and prolong life
care emphasized in a hospice, which involves reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity
fourth stage of dying- person comes to accept the certainty of her or his death, preparatory grief may appear
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