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29 terms

chapter 3 vocablary

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central nervous system
the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the nuerons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including the muscle and glands
nuerons
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
cell body
the part of a nueron that produces the energy needed for the activity of the cell
dendrites
the branchlike extension of a neuron that recieve impulses and conduct them toward the cell body
axon
a long tubelike structure attached to a nueron that transmits impulses away from the nueron cell body
myelin
a white, fatty substance that insulates axons and enables rapid tranmission of nueral impulses
axon terminals
smal fibers branching out from an axon
synapse
the junction between the axon terminals of the sending nueron and the dentrites of the recieving neuron
neurotransmitters
a chemical messenger that carries impulses across the synaptic gaps between nuerons
spinal cord
a column of nerves within the spinethat transmit messages to and from the brain
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, muscles, and the skin
autonomatic nervous system
the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration and digestion
medulla
a structure at the base of the brain stem that controls vital functions such as hearbeat and breathing
pons
a brain sructure located at the top of the brain stem tat is involved in respiration, movement, and sleep
cerebellum
the area of the brain that is responsiblefor voluntary movement and balance
reticular activating system
the part of the brain that is involved in attention, sleep, and arousal
thalamus
the structure of the brain that relays messages from the senses organs to the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
the nueral structure located below the thalamus that controls temperature, hunger, thirst, and various aspects of emotion
limbic system
a group of nueral structures at the base of the cerebral hemispehers that is associated with emotion and motivation
cerebrum
the large amout of mass of the forebrain, consiting of two hemispheres
cerebral cortex
the bumpy, convoluted surface of the brain; the body's control and information processing center
corpus callosum
the nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemisperes of the cerebral cortex
association areas
area of the cerebral cortex that are involved in such mental operations as thinking, memory, learning and problem solving
endocrine system
the glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemicals produced by the endocrine glands that regulate specific body functions
heredity
the genetic transmission of traits from one generation to the next
genes
the basic building blocks of heredity
chromosomes
a micrscopic threadlike structure in the nucleus of every living cell; it contains genes , the bacis units of heredity