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7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral (fused to form sacrum), 4 Coccygeal (fused to form coccyx)=33
Curves of spine
Concave posteriorly=cervical,lumbar=secondary curvatures b/c form when infant learns to hold its head ~3-4 months-lordotic
Concave anteriorly=thoracic,sacral=primary curvatures b/c develop in fetal life and present at birth-kyphosis
Abnormal curvatures of the spine
kyphosis=exaggerated posterior curvature of the spine (hunchback)
lordosis=exaggerated anterior curvature of the spine (sway/saddleback)
scoliosis=lateral curvature of the spine)
Components of typical vertebrae
vertebral body, vertebral arch (lamina and pedicle), vertebral foramen, spinous process, transverse process (2), articular process (4)
Processes and Facets
(1) median Spinous process
Transverse process (2) with a transverse costal facet
(2)Superior/(2)Inferior articular process with facet
Superior/Inferior costal facet (come off posterior to body)
wider body, triangular verteb foramen, transverse foramen (for vertebral arteries)
C3-C5 short and bifid SP while C7 long
C1 (atlas) no spinous process or body
C2 (axis) strongest cervical, dens
heart shaped body, bears 1 or 2 costal facets
circular and smaller vertebral foramen than C & L
long SP slopes posteroinferiorly
massive kidney shaped body
triangular vertebral foramen larger than T, smaller than C
SP short and sturdy, hatchet shaped
Fx=formed by fusion of 4 or 5 vertebrae and transmits body weight to the bony pelvis via the sacro-iliac joints
-facets of superior articular processes
-lateral,intermediate, medial sacral crests
-posterior/ant sacral foramina (4 pairs)=SACRAL SPINAL NERVES PASS THROUGH
IV=intervertebral discs=secondarily cartilaginous joints (symphyses-weight bearing & strength) and fibrocartilagenous
Zygapophyseal=plane-type of synovial, sup/inf articular facets (joints of the vertebral arches, facet joint)
Craniovertebral=atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial
IV disc components
Nucleus pulposus (internal matrix) surrounded by Anulus fibrosus (external covering of IV disc)
-homologous to supraspinous and interspinous ligaments in the cervical region
-it is a midsagittal membrane that separates the muscles on the 2 sides of the posterior neck and provides attachment for the muscles
-it attaches to the atlas and remaining cervical SP
-role is to help support the wt of head when flexion.
-bicondylar synovial joints
-established b/t occipital condyles and superior articular facets on lateral masses of atlas
-each joint has its own articular capsule
-allows for flexion/extension and some lateral flexion (but practically no rotation) "yes"
-occipital bone and atlas are connected by the anterior and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes/ligament
each joint is surrounded by a thin, loose capsule which is attached to the margins of the articular surfaces of the articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
-found b/t bone, atlas, axis
-specifically adapted for movements of the head
-remember, no IV discs at this point & all joints are classified as synovial
-2 atlanto-occipital membranes (ant and post)
3 atlanto-axial (2 lateral-lateral masses of C1 and superior facets of C2, 1 median-b/t dens of C2 and anterior arch and transverse ligament of C1)
(1 median-dens a pivot joint and 2 facet)..."no" movt.
State the areas of articulation between the skull and C1
The occipital condyles of the skull and the superior articular facets of the atlas
Give the ligament that attaches C1 to the skull
the anterior and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes
Lateral atlanto-axial joints
established between the inferior articular facets on the lateral masses of atlas and superior articular facets of axis
Median atlanto-axial joint
pivot joint established b/t dens of axis and osteo-fibrous ring formed by the anterior arch of atlas and transverse ligament of atlas
Transverse ligament of atlas
extends b/t the 2 lateral masses of the atlas-->retains(holds) the dens in position thus preventing impingement of spinal cord
portion of C2 that projects superiorly & articulates with the anterior arch of C1
4 major ligaments found at the atlanto-occipital joint?
-alar ligament, superior longitudinal, transverse, inferior longitudinal
Give the attachment of the transverse ligament
runs between tubercles on the lateral masses of C1 and supporting the Dens of C2
Cruciform ligament components
Superior longitudinal fibers
Inferior longitudinal fibers
Transverse ligament of atlas
extend from side of dens to the lateral margins of foramen magnum. Anterior to cruciform. prevent excessive rotation
What are the characteristics of a typical cervical vertebrae
they have vertebral bodies, they articulate at the facets forming articular pillars, have joints of Luschka
Joints of Luschka
Uncovertebral....located between uncus of the bodies (uncinate processes) of the C3-C6 and superior
Unique about thoracic vertebrae?
costal facets (on transverse processes and on body, sup/inf)...where rib articulates with vertebrae
Another name for the word facet? Name facets
Superior/Inf costal facets (demifacets), sup/inf articular facets, transverse costal facets
3 features of thoracic vertebra that distinguish them from C and L
-costal facets (demifacets) on their body
-costal facets on the transverse process
-long spinous process
More characteristics of thoracic vertebrae
-T1 has a vertebral foramen and body similar to a cervical vertebra
-T5-T9 vertebra have typical characteristic of thoracic vertebra
-T12 has a bony process and body simialr to a lumbar vertebra
What is the normal curvature of the lumbar spine?
Lordotic-considered a secondary curve because it develops after the fetal period
What structure unique to the lumbar vertebras is located on the posterior surface of the superior articulating facet?
Mammillary processes. This is where the multifidus M attaches!!!!!!
More notes about lumbar
when on top of each other, can see inferior/sup vertebral notch, and Intervertebral foramen!
What is the anterior projection edge of the S1 vertebra called?
Sacral promontory used to make measurements of the pelvic inlet
Anterior=strong and broad, covers and connects anterolateral aspects of vertebral bodies and IV discs. Extends from pelvic surface of sacrum to anterior tubercle of C1 and the occ bone . Maintains stability of IV joints and limits ext. of vertebra
posterior=narrower and weaker, runs within vertebral canal along posterior aspect of vertebral bodies. Attached mainly to IV discs and less to posterior edges of vertrbral bodies from C2
=pale yellow, elastic fibrous tissue that joins laminae of adjacent vertebral arches
-help preserve normal curvature and assist with straightening the column after flexing
-contributes to posterior boundaries of the intervertebral foramen and helps to strengthn the vertebral column after flexion
Interspinous and supraspinous ligaments
adjacent SP are united by weak, almost membranous IL and strong fibrous supraspinous (merges superiorly with the nuchal ligament
What ligament plays an important role in stabilizing the vertebral podies
Ant/Post longitudinal ligaments
Where does the posterior longitudinal ligament run?
Along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies, within the vertebral canal
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