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25 terms

Chapter 3

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indentured servant
A migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from four to seven years.
melting pot
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
gender ratio
number of males per 100 females in a populations.
naval stores
products used to make or repair ships
"invisible" charges
Charges that people put on another person that they didnt actually commit because they are mad at you
headright system
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
natural increase
population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emigrant or immigrant movements
staple crop
crops grown for commercial sale, usually produced in a colonial area and sold in europe. Most important crop grown in that area.
balance of trade
the difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise
triangular trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
promissory note
a written contract with a promise to pay a supplier a specific sum of money at a definite time
township
A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
established church
the church that is recognized as the official church of a nation
covenant theory
This theory made in the 17th and 18th centuries stated that god made a covenant or pact with "the elect" that when man fell, the elect would be saved.
Half-Way Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
John Peter Zenger
Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
heliocentric universe
sun center of universe; developed by copernicus
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Deist
a person who believes that God created the universe and then abandoned it
Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."