define Normal anxiety
diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension accompanied by autonomic symptoms
what is the purpose of normal anxiety?
alerting signal, warns of danger and allows person to take measure to deal with threat
Neurochemical model of anxiety: what causes anxiety and what are the THREE physical symptoms?
activation of autonomic nervous system, tachycardia, diarrhea, tachypnea
Neurochemical model of anxiety: what THREE neurotransmitters are involved in anxiety?
NE, 5-HT, GABA
Neurochemical model of anxiety: one does one induce a panic attack? (2)
administer NE, 5-HT releasers; GABA antagonists
Neurochemical model of anxiety: how do we know that GABA is involved?
high efficacy of benzodiazepine agents
genetic model of anxiety: 3 key facts
high rate of familial inheritance, greater in monozygotic than dizygotic twins, modeled or learned behavior
Behavioral model of anxiety: what is anxiety?
a conditioned response to a specific environmental stimuli
Panic Attack symptoms: 5 system symptoms
palpitations/pounding heart, shortness of breath, choking feeling, chest pain, abdominal distress, Paresthesia (tingling sensation)
Panic Attack symptoms: 4 mental symptoms
feelings of unreality, fear of losing control/going crazy, fear of dying
define social phobia; what happens when a person is forced into or anticipates being in a social situation?
excessive/unreasonable fear/avoidance of social situations; situation endured with intense anxiety and stress (INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM A PANIC ATTACK)
specific phobia: how common? define? treatment? (2)
most common anxiety disorder, irrational/excessive fear of specific objects/situation, grader exposure or flooding
specific symptoms of PTSD (4)
intrusive symptoms, avoidance behavior, numbing, hyperarousal symptoms
specific symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (8)
excessive anxiety and difficult to control worry, significant distress/impairment, difficulty concentrating, irritability, restlessness, muscle tension, fatigue
specific symptoms of OCD? (9)
checking, washing, repeating/counting, ordering/symmetry, hoarding, harming obsessions, religious/sexual rituals, primary obsessional slowness, pure obsessionals w/o action