a. Clotting factors decrease, thus increasing the chance of prolonged bleeding.
b. Fewer immunoglobulins are synthesized, thus impairing the immune function.
c. Less iron is stored, thus increasing the incidence of iron deficiency anemia.
d. Osmotic pressure decreases, thus water moves from the capillaries to the
In the case of decreased production (e.g., cirrhosis, other diffuse liver diseases, protein
malnutrition) or excessive loss of albumin (e.g., certain kidney diseases, extensive burns),
the reduced oncotic pressure leads to excessive movement of fluid and solutes into the
tissues and decreased blood volume. The other options are not accurate descriptions of the
effect of low plasma albumin
a. Erythrocytes contain a nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.
b. Erythrocytes synthesize proteins.
c. Erythrocytes have the ability to change shape to squeeze through microcirculation.
d. Erythrocyte colony-stimulating factor (E-CSF) stimulates erythrocytes.
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A temperature scale that never quite caught on was formulated by the Austrian chemist Johann Sebastian Farblunget. The reference points on this scale were , the temperature below which Farblunget’s postnasal drip began to bother him, and , the boiling point of beer. Conversions between and can be accomplished with the expression Louis Louis, Farblunget’s French nephew, attempted to follow in his uncle’s footsteps by formulating his own temperature scale. He defined the degree Louie using as reference conditions the optimum serving temperature of marinated snails ( corresponding to ) and the temperature at which the elastic in his briefs began to relax ( corresponding to ).
a) At what temperature in does beer boil?
b) What is the temperature interval of 10.0 Farblunget degrees equivalent to in ?
c) Derive equations for in terms of and of .
d) What is the boiling point of ethane at 1 atm in ?
e) What is a temperature interval of 50.0 Louie degrees equivalent to in Celsius degrees, Kelvin degrees, Fahrenheit degrees, Rankine degrees, and Farblunget degrees?