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First Quiz in Mlocki

Two Upper Layers of the Heart


Two lower layers of the heart



wall of each chamber is composed of cardiac muscle tissue


smooth lining of heart chambers


two layed fibrous sac that has lubricated spaced between the two layers

Inner Layer of the Pericardium

visceral pericardium or epicardium

Outer layer of the Pericardium

Parietal pericardium

Cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart caused by fluid building up between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium


contraction of the heart


relaxation of the heart

Each complete heart beat =

systole and diastole

The purpose of valves

keep blood flowing through the heart; prevent back flow

Examples of Atrioventricular Valves

Tricuspid and Biscuspid (mitral)

Tricuspid valve location

at the opening of the right atrium into the ventricle

Bicuspid valve location

between left atrium into the left ventricle

Examples of Semilunar Valves

Pulmonary semilunar and aortic semilunar

Pulmonary semilunar location

between right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

Aortic Semilunar location

at the behinning of the aorta

Incompetent Valves

leaks, allowing some blood to flow backward into the chamber from which it came

Stenosed Valves

are narrowed than normal, reducing blood flow

Rheumated Heart Disease

cardiac damage resulting from a delayed inflammatory response to streptococcal infection

Mitral valve prolapse

incompetence of mitral valve caused b its edges extending back into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts

First sound of the heart


Second sound of the heart



caused by the vibration and closure of AV valves during contraction of the ventricles


caused by the closure of the semilunar valves during relaxation of the ventricles

Heart murmurs

abnormal heart sounds often caused by abnormal valves

The diastole-systole cardiac cycle occurs between

70-80 times per minute (100,000 per day)

How many ounces of blood are pumped with each contraction?

which means 5 quarts per minute
75 gallons an hour and about 2000 gallons a day

Blockage of blood through the coronary arteriescan cause

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)


hardening of the arteries-can totally or partially block coronary blood flow

Angina Pectoris

severe chest pain causes by inadequate oxygen (ischemia) to the heart

how long does angina pectoris last?

15 to 30 mins will resolve with intervention

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