Phonemic Awareness

Phonemic awareness
the ability to hear, identify and manipulate with the individual sounds in spoken words
smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words - English has 41 phonemes
smallest part of written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of the word; it can be one letter or several letters
the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes and graphemes
phonological awareness
broad term that includes phonemic awareness. It can involve work with rhymes, words, syllables and onsets and rimes.
a word part that contains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound (e-vent; news-pap-per; ver-y)
onsets and rimes
smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes
initial consonant sound of a syllable (bag is b; of swim - sw)
a part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (bag is -ag; of swim, -im)
phoneme isolation
recognizing individual sounds in a word
phoneme identity
recognize the same sounds in different words
phoneme categorization
recognize the word in a set of three or four words that has the "odd" sound - which word doesn't belong: bus, bun, rug
phoneme blending
children listen to a sequence of separately spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to form a word, then write and read the word
phoneme segmentation
children break a word into separate sounds, saying each sound as they tap out or count it, then they write or read the word
phoneme deletion
children recognize the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from the word (e.g., smile with s, becomes mile
phoneme addition
children make a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word (e.g, park becomes spark)
phoneme substitution
children substitute one phoneme for another to make a new word (tell - bell - fell)
phoneme manipulation
when children work with phonemes in words
when children combine individual phonemes to form words or when they combine onsets and rimes to make syllables and combine syllables to make words
when children break words into their individual phonemes or when they break words into syllables and syllables into onsets and rimes
phonemic awareness is most effective
when it forcuses on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation, rather than several types and when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using the letters of the alphabet
phonemic awareness instruction
is most effective in small groups
phonemic awareness is important because
it improves children's word reading and reading comprehension; helps children learn to spell
phonemic awarenes developed through
identifying phonemes, categorizing phonemes, blending phonemes to form words, segment words into phonemes, delete or add phonemes to form new words, and substitute phonemes to make new words.