History Final Terms

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The Neolithic Revolution
The huge changes during the new stone age-agriculture to civilization
Hammurabi's Code
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
The Achaemenid Persians
The Achaemenid Empire, or First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia in Iran, founded in the 6th century BC by Cyrus the Great. The dynasty draws its name from King Achaemenes, who ruled Persis between 705 BC and 675 BC.
Judiasm
The first monotheistic religion - guided by the Hebrew Bible called the Torah.
Christianity
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
Zoroastrianism
A religion originating in ancient Iran that became the official religion of the Achaemenids. It centered on a single benevolent deity, Ahuramazda, who engaged in a struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. It emphasized truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature.
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Pillars of Islam
Is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahadah (profession of faith), Salat (ritual prayer), Zakat (almsgiving), Sawm (fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Muhammad
Founder of Islamic religion, prophet of allah, conquers Mecca
Caliph
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government.
Rashidun Caliphs
Rightly guided caliphs. Abu Bakr (632-34), Umar (634-644), Uthman (644-56), and Ali (656-61)
Umyyad Dynasty
adapted from living in desert to ruling large cities, relied on local officials, tension between wealthy and lower class, upset non-arab muslims
Abbassid Dynasty
(750 - 1258) Ruling family of the Islamic Empire during its golden age. This dynasty is responsible for many achievements
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Moksha
Becoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism.
Samsara
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
Karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Buddhism
A religion in which Buddha's teachings that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire and suffering ceases when desire ceases. Enlightenment obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth (reincarnation).
The Eight-Fold Path
Control your thoughts. Resist evil. Know the truth. Meditate. Resist thinking of evil. Work for the good of others. respect life. Say nothing to hurt others.
Nirvana
the ultimate goal of all Buddhists, the extinction of desire and any sense of individual selfhood, resulting in liberation from samsara and its limiting conditions.
The Four Noble Truths
1. Life is Suffering . 2. The Cause of Suffering is Desire 3. Eliminate the desire become totally attached from our likes and dislikes. 4. Apply 8-fold Path
Indus Valley Civilization
An ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys from 2600-1900 BCE.
Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro
early cities in India's first civilization, carefully planned, constructed of mud bricks, bathrooms with drainage system, sewage system, garbage system, well-organized government
Vedic Aryan Society
1500 BCE, the Vedic Aryans reformed the indus civilization. no artifacts or proof of existence besides the Vedas. -semi-nomadic -traders/raiders -pastoralists
Maurya Empire
Founded by Chandragupta, it centralized India; greatest ruler, Ashoka; collapsed because of outside invaders; built road system for trade and defense
Ashoka
..., Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. (p. 184)
Gupta Empire
(320-550 C.E.) A powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
Confucianism
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
Daoism
A Philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi, Who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao
Legalism
A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order
The Silk Road
One of the first trade routes in the world,an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
The Mongols
Were United by Gingus Kahn to capture all of asia, which they did except for India. Asia under Mongolian ruler till grandson of Gings (Kublai) died and there was an overturning.
Genghis Kahn
1162-1227. Leader and founder of Mongol tribes of Asia. Ruled from 1206-1227. Occupied most of Asia during reign.
Kublai Kahn
grandson of Genghis, Song ended in 1279, he ruled his own dynasty, Yuan, which was China's only foreign-ruled dynasty
The Mandate of Heaven
Idea that the emperor was chosen to rule and given his authority from Heaven and was responsible for ruling the with goodness and efficiency.
The Zhou Dynasty
A dynasty that lasted almost eight hundred years (1045 - 256 B.C.) making it the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history.
Warring States Period
402-201 BCE, between Zhou and Qin dynasties, lack of centralized government in China
Spring & Autumn Period
Period between the eighth and fifth centuries BCE, during which China was ruled by the feudal system. Considered a turbulent time, there were 148 different tributary states in this period. The Zhou dynasty was in control. This time was the beginning of the 100 Schools of Thought and a Golden Age of Chinese philosophy.
The Han Dynasty
This empire would lasted for more than four centuries. This dynasty represented the high point and the classical phase of the Chinese civilization.
The Qin Dynasty
Created Great Wall of China, use of currency, weight and measure standardized, tomb of terra-cotta army
Shi Haungdi
"First Emperor" a Emperor in the Qin Dynasty who had many accomplishments like the Great Wall of China
The Sui Dynasty
Dynasty from 581 to 618. After the fall of the Han dynasty, China suffered through 300 years of disorder and civil war. In 581, a new dynasty rose to power. Although it did not last long, but it did manage to unify China once again.
The Tang Dynasty
After the Sui, this dynasty soon took control from 618 to 907. The early rulers began by instituting reforms (changes), as the rulers often did in the beginning of a new dynasty. For one, they gave land to peasants (poor farmers) and broke up the large estates. They also opened up trade with Southeast Asia.
The Song Dynasty
Zhao Kuangyin united china. GOLDEN AGE. Rise in farming productivity created surpluses which allowed for more learning. Trade flourished
The Yuan Dynasty
kublai khan announced the beginning of his own dynasty it covered northern china, with Beijing as the capital. This dynasty lasted from 1279-136
The Ming Dynasty
(1368-1641) The founder of the Dynasty was Ming Hong Wu. During the Ming Dynasty the silk rode was set up, the great canal of china connected the yellow and the Yangtze river, and set up school systems
The Qing Dynasty
1644-1911 AD: upheld traditional Confucian beliefs & social structure, made frontiers safe, restored prosperity, continued the policy of isolation
Mercantilism
An economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
The Canton System
- 1760-1842 official monopoly, restricting merchants to factories.
The Opium Wars
Primarily a naval conflict, these wars were fought between China and England because England kept smuggling opium into China. The Chinese, whose navy was outdated, were no match for England's modern, steam-powered gunboats. China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing. Opium trade continued.
The Treaty of Nanjing
The treaty that ended the Opium War—the first of the unequal treaties that the Chinese would sign with western powers and others—was named after the city where it was signed. This treaty was called:
Unequal Treaties
Series of treaties that forced trade concessions from the Qing dynasty of China, particularly after their defeat in the Opium War, specifically with the Treaty of Nanjing. Other notable examples of "unequal treaties" would include the Japanese signing of the 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa.
The Taiping Rebellion
a rebellion in Qing China led by Hong Xiuquan; 20-30 million killed; started because peasants were enraged that the rich elites own most of the land; raged throughout China and brought decline to China (1800's)
Maya Empire
Located in SE Mexico, Guatemala and Yucatan. Collection of City/States. 300-900 A.D. Known for math, astronomy, calendar and agriculture. Chichen Itza was most famous city/state along with Tikal, Uxmal, and Tulum.
Aztec Empire
1325-1500 CE. Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico. Forced defeated people to provide goods and labor as tax. At its best had complex myth and religious traditions and reached amazing architectural and artistic accomplishments.
Flowery Wars
when the Aztecs went to war with enemies just to get people for sacrifice, not to gain land
The Tripple Alliance
1882. It began in Bismarck's day when he feared attack from France. He allied with Italy and Austria-Hungary
Inca Empire
(1450-1572 CE), Largest Empire ever built in South America; territory extended 2,500 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century. As the most powerful people of Andean America, the Inca dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; was an extremely diverse culture cause it spanned north and south rather then east and west.
The Olmec
(1800 BCE- 150 CE) first major civilization in Mexico, practiced ritual bloodletting, and played the mesoamerican ballgame, artwork consisted of the colossal heads, developed longcut calendar, were not peace loving peoples
Teotihuacan
(200 BC - 750 AD) Highland Mexico, largest city, obsidian, more than 5000 structures, pop 125-200k people, large pyramids, no ball courts, no writing, city of the gods, evidence for large fires
Chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
Altepetl
The 450 city-states that made up the Aztec Empire; each included its own speaker or leader, own government, a palace for its ruler, a pyramid shaped temple, and a market
Mita
In the Inca Empire, the requirement that all able-bodied subjects work for the state a certain number of days each year
Quipu
calculator consisting of a cord with attached cords
Hernan Cortes
(1485-1547) Spanish explorer, landed in Mexico in 1519 with about 500 men and a few horses, opened communication with nearby communities and with Moctezuma II
Francisco Pizarro
A Spanish conquistador who went to the Incas and took emporer prisoner and then killed him and took over the Inca empire