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The trachea (windpipe) is _____ to the spine.


The brain is _____ to the spinal cord.


The kidneys are _____ to the liver.


The nose is _____ to the cheekbones.


The thumb is _____ to the ring finger.


The thorax is _____ to the abdomen.


The skin is _____ to the skeleton.

sagittal; median/midsagittal plane; parasagittal plane

A plane runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts is referred to as a _____ plane. If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the median plane of the body, it is called a _____. All other of these planes are called _____.

frontal; anterior; posterior

Sometimes called a coronal plane, the _____ plane is a longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into _____ and _____ parts.

transverse; superior; inferior

A _____ plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into _____ and _____ parts. When organs are sectioned along this plane, the sections are commonly called cross sections.

Cranial and vertebral (or spinal) cavities

The dorsal body cavity can be subdivided into what two cavities?

Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

The ventral body cavity contains what two cavities?

serosa, or serous membrane

The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with an exceedingly thin, double-layered membrane called the _____.

parietal serosa, visceral serosa

The part of the serous membrane lining the cavity walls is referred to as the _____, and is continuous with a similar membrane, the _____, covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity.

Serous membranes

These produce a thin lubricating fluid that allows the visceral organs to slide over one another or to rub against the body wall without friction.


How do serous membranes prevent spread of infection between organs?

peritoneum; pleura; pericardium

The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs is the ____, that enclosing the lungs is the _____, and that around the heart is the _____.

Stomach, diaphragm

Name two organs found in the left upper abdominopelvic quadrant.

Cecum, appendix

Name two organs found in the right lower abdominopelvic quadrant.

Urinary bladder

What organ is divided into identical halves by the median plane line?

Umbilical region

This abdominopelvic region is the centermost region.

Epigastric region

This abdominopelvic region is immediately superior to the umbilical region.

Epigastric region

This abdominopelvic region overlies most of the stomach.

Hypogastric (pubic) region

This abdominopelvic region is immediately inferior to the umbilical region.

Hypogastric (pubic) region

This abdominopelvic region encompasses the pubic area.

Iliac regions (right and left)

This abdominopelvic region is lateral to the hypogastric region.

Iliac regions (right and left)

These abdominopelvic regions overly the superior parts of the hip bones.

Lumbar regions (right and left)

This abdominopelvic region lies between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones.

Lumbar regions (right and left)

This abdominopelvic region is lateral to the umbilical region.

Hypochondriac regions (right and left)

This abdominopelvic region flanks the epigastric region laterally.

Hypochondriac regions (right and left)

This abdominopelvic region is overlies the lower ribs.

Oral cavity

This cavity contains the tongue and the teeth.

Oral; anus

This cavity is continuous with the rest of the digestive tube, which opens to the exterior at the _____.

Nasal cavity

This cavity is located within and posterior to the nose.


The _____ cavities in the skull houses the eyes and present them in an anterior position.

Middle ear cavities

These cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing in the middle ear. Each lies just medial to an eardrum and is carved into the bony skull.


These cavities are joint cavities - they are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body.

At attention with palms forward and hands by side.

Describe the standard human anatomical position.

anterior; posterior; superior

In the anatomical position, the face and palms are on the _____ body surface; the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the _____ body surface; and the top of the head is the most _____ part of the body.

superior; medial; lateral

The ears are _____ and _____ to the shoulders and _____ to the nose.

anterior; superior

The heart is _____ to the vertebral column (spine) and _____ to the lungs.

proximal; distal

The elbow is _____ to the fingers but _____ to the shoulder.

inferior; anterior

The abdominopelvic cavity is _____ to the thoracic cavity and _____ to the spinal cavity.

posterior; superior

In humans, the dorsal surface can also be called the _____ surface; however, in quadruped animals, the dorsal surface is the _____ surface.

sagittal; transverse

If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a _____ section; but if the heart is cut so that superior and inferior portions result, the section is a _____ section.

frontal, transverse

You are told to cut a dissection animal along two planes so that both kidneys are observable in each section. The two sections that will always meet this requirement are the _____ and _____ sections.


Which body cavity would have to be opened for surgery to remove a cancerous lung lobe?

Superior mediastinum




Vertebral Cavity


Abdominal Cavity


A: right upper, B: right lower quadrant, C: left upper quadrant; D: left lower quadrant


Ventral Body Cavity

Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

Abdominopelvic Cavity


A: frontal plane; B: midsagittal plane; C: transverse plane


Dorsal Cavity


Thoracic Cavity


Pleural Cavity


Pericardial Cavity


Cranial Cavity


Pelvic Cavity














Fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis). Be prepared to identify chondrocytes in lacunae and collagen fibers.


Elastic cartilage (epiglottis and external ear). Be prepared to identify chondrocytes in lacunae and elastic fibers.


Compact bone (shaft of long bones; external portin of the epiphyses). Be prepare to identify osteocytes, lacuna, lamella, Haversian (central) canal.


Blood (contained within blood vessels; contains erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets in a fluid matrix)


Dense regular connective tissue (tendons). Like the densely packed collagen fibers, the nuclei of fibroblasts are aligned in parallel, an important feature for differentiating this tissue from smooth muscle.


Palmar skin. Within palmar skin, five morphologically discrete layers of tissue exist. The outermost layer is the stratum corneum, which is predominantly comprised of dead cells that are almost continuously sloughed from the body. As these cells are lost, new ones originate via mitosis from the innermost layer of palmar skin, the stratum basale, and gradually migrate through the other strata until they too are eventually exfoliated and replaced.`


Reticular connective tissue (forms the internal framework of many lymphoid organs: spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow). Be prepared to identify reticular fibers.


Areolar connective tissue (distributed throughout the body loosely binding adjacent structures; forms the lamina propria that underlies all epithelia in the body). Be prepared to identify collagen fibers, elastic fibers, nuclei of fibroblasts, and mast cells.


Adipose tissue (hypodermis of skin, surrounding kidneys/eyeballs/mammary glands). Each adipocyte is filled with a large fat droplet causing the nucleus to be pushed to the edge of the cell.


Skeletal muscle. Long cylindrical cells (fibers), multinucleated, obvious striations running perpendicular to fiber direction.


Cardiac muscle. Striated muscle (difficult to view) composed of branching cells with one centrally located nucleus (occasionally two). Cells are joined by specialized cells junctions, intercalated discs.


Transitional epithelium (forms the lining of the urinary bladder, ureter, and the superior portion of the urethra). Changes shape - when relaxed, appears cuboidal; when stretched, appears squamous.


Simple squamous epithelium (alveoli of lungs, blood vessels, lining of the ventral body cavity (serosae)). May resemble fried eggs.




Simple cuboidal epithelium.


Simple columnar epithelium.


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