The main reason for the attack was desperation and food. They had to fight or starve.
Who led the Visigoth's when they attacked Rome?
What term describes a foreign soldier hired to fight to protect Rome's borders?
How long did the Dark Ages last?
7 centuries or 700 years.
What was life like during the Dark Ages?
The Dark Ages were a period of widespread violence, illiteracy, disease, and superstition.
What became of the Colosseum after Rome was sacked?
The Colosseum was used as a landfill, a storage area for wild animals, and was scavenged for building materials.
Who was thought to be the new Emperor to Dark Ages Europe?
How did Clovis unite his people?
Clovis united his people by converting to Christianity and being baptized.
What was the common thread that kept people together despite political, military, and social problems?
Religion--being a Christian nation held the people together.
What did Constantine do to Christianity in 313 AD?
Constantine made Christianity legal in 313 AD.
What rule did Clovis have trouble keeping as a Christian?
Clovis had difficulty keep the command "Thou Shall Not Kill".
Who was Clovis?
Clovis was the first Frank king who united Europe under Christianity.
What was the "ordeal"?
The "ordeal" was a test of someone's guilt or innocence. In one form the accused would have to pluck a pebble from a pot of boiling water. The wound would be bandaged and checked. If it was healing well then the person was innocent. If not then the person was guilty. Another "ordeal" was for the accused to be dropped into the river and if the person sank they were innocent if they floated they were guilty.
Who was united due to Clovis?
The barbarian Franks.
When the Roman empire was split and the western half fell what was the new capital or new Rome called?
Constantinople or Byzantium
What was still Roman about the Eastern part of the empire?
Roman protection led by an emperor and living like Romans with an agora shopping area and entertainment in an arena made the eastern empire still "Roman".
What was different between the eastern and western parts of the Roman empire?
The East was seen as rich, cultured, peace keepers where the West was viewed as poor, hick fighters.
What did the Byzantine emperor Justinian resolve to do in 527 AD?
Justinian wanted to reunite the Roman empire and take control of the Mediterranean (Roman pond).
Who was Justinian's wife and co-emperor?
Theodora was Justinian's wife and power behind the emperor.
How many sports fans were slaughtered after the empress Theodora convinced Justinian not to flee after the revolt?
30,000 fans were killed in response to the rebellion at the chariot races in 532 AD.
What church does Justinian build in Constantinople in 538?
Hagia Sophia, the Church of Holy Wisdom, a symbol of the power of Christianity.
In the Byzantine empire, what percentage of urban areas were killed by the bubonic plague?
50% of the population of urban areas were killed by the bubonic plague.
How was the plague spread?
Fleas on rats carried the tainted blood of the rat and transferred it to people when the fleas bit them.
How many people were struck down by the plague of Justinian?
100 million people died of the plague during Justinian's rule. Justinian himself was a survivor of the plague.
People didn't work 9-5 during the Dark Ages, what pattern did they follow for working?
Seasonal patterns were followed during the Dark Ages. Periods of non-stop work followed by months of nothing.
What is a monastery?
A monastery is a place for monks and nuns to get away from the sins of the world and dedicate themselves to worship and study.
Who was St. Benedict and what did he do?
Benedict was a monk who chose to live a hermit existence until people learned of his miracles (healings, etc) and he rejoined fellow monks creating the rules for living in a monastery by living in servitude.
What religion did the Moors follow?
Islam was the religion of the Spanish Moors.
Who were the Moors?
The Moors were the Muslim groups who had taken over Spain.
Who was Abdul Rakmahn?
Abdul Rakmahn was the general in charge of the Moor invasion of Europe.
Who was Charles "the Hammer" Martel?
Germanic leader of the Christian Franks who met the Moors at Tours France and turned them back. Thus he saved Europe from Islam.
Who was the greatest king of the Dark Ages and king of the Franks?
Charlemagne son of Pepin the Short and grandson of Charles Martel.
What empire did Charlemagne found?
Charlemagne founded the Holy Roman Empire (Carolingian dynasty)
What happened to anyone caught worshiping false gods according to the Bloody Verdict of Verdun?
To be caught worshiping false gods was punishable by being beheaded.
What political reasons did Clovis have to convert to Christianity?
Clovis wanted to conquer the groups and unite them while keeping them loyal to him.
What did Clovis do with the men in the lands he conquered?
Clovis made the men in the lands he conquered part of his army.
What did Clovis do to his extended family?
Clovis killed off any relatives that posed a threat to his power (anyone outside his immediate family)
What invisible killer arrived in the Byzantine empire in 542AD?
What percentage of the population did the plague kill?
50% of the population were killed by the plague. Some however did survive but were never the same. Justinian was one of these survivors.
What did the Byzantine armies in Western Europe do after Justinian's death?
Byzantine armies pulled out of Western Europe after Justinian's death (of natural causes--not plague)
What did the English monk Bead write in Jaro England in 730?
Bead wrote a five volume book called "A History of England", a pre-christian text ranging from Caesar to his own day.
How many books had Bead collected earning him the title of most educated of his time?
Bead had 250 books in his library.
Why did the monks that invited St. Benedict to their monastery try to poison him twice?
The monks decided they did not like Benedict's rules and emphasis on servitude.
How did St. Benedict "miraculously" avoid being poisoned?
The first time his drink was poisoned and as Benedict said a prayer over the cup it exploded. The second escape came when the monks had poisoned Benedict's bread. As Benedict raised it a bird flew in and took it.
How long did the Frankish and Moorish armies wait for each other to make the first move at Tours?
The armies faced each other for 6 days, on the seventh the Moors attacked but the Franks looped behind and captured the Moors' camps, thus defeating them.
What title did the Christian church give to Charles Martel after his victory at Tours?
Charles Martel was called the "Savior of Christianity" after his victory at Tours.
On Christmas Day, 800 AD, what did Charlemagne become?
The church named Charlemagne the "Emperor of Rome" and the "Father of Europe".
How many military campaigns did Charlemagne wage over his 46 year career as king?
Charlemagne led 50 military campaigns as king.
When Charlemagne conquered people, what choice concerning Christianity did he give pagan subjects?
Pagans could convert to Christianity or die.
What did Charlemagne divide his empire into in order to rule it?
Charlemagne divided his kingdom into 350 counties each led by a governor (noble) of his choice. Charlemagne traveled from county to county to oversee everything.
How did Charlemagne rekindle learning in Europe?
Charlemagne rekindled learning by building state schools for all children to learn. He also led by example and as an adult learned to read and write.
What happened in Lindisfarne England on June 8, 793? What "age" had begun?
On June 8, 793 the Vikings landed on English soil pillaging a monastery, thus issuing in the "Viking Age"
How did the Viking ships help their raids to be so unexpected?
Viking ships could sail on the oceans but could also sail up rivers due to an open draft system created in the ship.
What was the favorite target for the Vikings (place)?
Great Britain and the British isles were the favorite target of the Vikings---they were just so easy to get to.
When the Viking Ivar and the "Great Heathen Army" took York, how did Alfred the Great defend his kingdom?
Alfred build fortresses to hide people and goods in. The Vikings didn't have the siege technology to take Alfred.
How long did it take Alfred to defeat the Great Heathen Army?
It took 25 years to defeat the Vikings completely.
What did many Vikings who moved to Western Europe eventually do?
The Vikings still there assimilated (mixed into) the Western European culture.
Who did European knights start to attack once Europe was no longer threatened by external enemies?
European knights were a violent group who began threatening the peasants living on the lords lands.
What did the purpose of castles become during this time?
The castles were the symbol of subjugation for the peasants.
What two edicts did the Church issue in the 10th century to curb knightly violence?
The Edicts were the "Peace of God" and the "Truce of God"---these prevented knights from picking on the peasants and from fighting on certain days.
What lands did the Church tell knights they could invade in 1095?
Pope Urban II issued a decree that knights would be absolved of their crimes if they fought in the holy land to free it from the Muslims.
What does the Latin phrase, "deos vult" mean?
"Deos vult" means God wills it.
How did the Crusades improve Europe?
The crusades opened up trade with the East again and brought back knowledge in medicine, languages, philosophies, mathematics, as well as books from the ancients.
Why did European agriculture improve around the year 1000?
This was the end of a mini-ice age. More land was available for farming than had been.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, how were things looking for Europe?
Europe was heading toward the Renaissance, but still had to face political chaos while making an effort to better themselves.