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Module 1 Flashcards
Module 1 Exam
Terms in this set (56)
A Mesopotamian man who lived around 1800 BCE and is believed to be the patriarch of the three major monotheistic religions.
Became the second major Islamic dynasty, replacing the Umayyad dynasty. This dynasty moved the capital city to Baghdad (present-day Iraq), and was influenced by the Persians.
The Holy Text for Christians
The Holy Text for Jews
The Holy Text for Muslims
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam are a set of acts considered by Muslims to be central to their faith. They are shahadah (statement of belief), salat (daily prayers), sawm (fasting) during Ramadan, zakat (alms-giving), and hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
the Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (Kaaba - the most sacred site in Islam)
the government center of the far eastern Byzantine Empire
The belief that people should rest one day a week shared by all three monotheistic religions.
an Arab ethnic group that largely lives a nomadic or seminomadic life in the deserts of Southwest Asia and North Africa and whose people are generally organized into tribes or clans
a group of officials and other workers who take care of the daily business of government
An outer garment worn by women in public in Islamic cultures
Eastern half of the Roman Empire. Capital city was Constantinople (Istanbul). Lasted from 300s C.E. to 1453 C.E.
Biblical or ancient name for the lands of modern Israel that lie between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea
Roman emperor who ruled from 306 CE to 337 CE. He was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, and he established Christianity as the empire's religion; he also moved the Roman capital from Rome to Constantinople
The former name of the city of Istanbul, Turkey.
A city once referred to as the "New Rome" (built to resemble "Old Rome") located in the East.
The "Four Rightly Guided Caliphs"
The four caliphs who would rule following Muhammad's death and were responsible for the massive expansion of Arab and Islamic influence in the region.
A Sunni Muslim believes...
that leadership should pass to people accepted by the Muslim community, not necessarily a direct relative of Muhammad. (About 90% of today's Muslims are Sunni)
A Shi'a Muslim believes...
that leadership should pass through descendants of Muhammad or his blood relatives. (About 10% of today's Muslims are Shi'a)
The goals of the Crusades
stop the spread of Islam to Europe, conquer land en route to the Holy Land, reclaim religious shrines in the Holy Land.
branches or subgroups of a religion with specific beliefs or practices that distinguish it from other branches
Led an army that defeated the Muslim Saracens in a decisive battle at Portian in Southern France (the battle of Poitiers - also know as the Battle of Tours). This victory ended the expansion of Islam in Western Europe.
the process of spreading phenomena, such as religion and other cultural elements, from one area or group of people to another through contact
relating to ancient Greek civilization
The Delhi Sultanate
the first Muslim Empire in India.
The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE)
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second Islamic caliphate after Muhammad's death. It was also the first Islamic empire.
the journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina between June 21st and July 2nd in 622 CE.
a follower of Hinduism, a religious system that originated on the Indian subcontinent that emphasizes a cycle of rebirth in human existence and the role of dharma, or one's duty according to basic universal principles and laws
A tax assessed on non-Muslims in Islamic conquered territories- often Jews and Christians who didn't want to pay the tax would convert to avoid paying it.
The House of Wisdom
a school and library founded by Caliph Al-Ma'mun in Baghdad, which attracted scholars from surrounding continents.
debate in the seventh to ninth centuries of the Byzantine Empire over the Church's creation and use of icons
slaves of the sultan trained for battle.
He is the most important figure in Christianity, held by tradition to have been the son of God. Christians believe that Jesus allowed himself to be crucified by the Romans to atone for the sins of humanity.
a collection of laws and legal interpretations formed with the support of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I
a relationship or connection between two parties that share a common biological, cultural, or historical origin
The Byzantine emperor credited codifying and updating Roman laws. and reviving Hellenistic (ancient Greek) art and literature.
The official language of the western (old) Roman Empire.
The official language of the eastern (new) Byzantine Empire.
Muhammad is the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the last in a line of prophets of God. His prophesies, collected in the Qur'an, are believed by Muslims to be the word of God.
Those who were against the use of icons in church worship
He is the most important figure in Judaism, believed to have written the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible). Moses is an important prophet in both Christianity and Islam.
Turkish group ruled by the Ottoman dynasty; formed an empire that lasted from about 1300 to 1922. The group that proved to be the greatest threat to the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century.
a man considered the father or founder of a family, race, or religion
Built by Justinian I - originally a Christian cathedral, in 1453, after the Turks conquered Constantinople, the Hagia Sophia became a mosque.
John of Damascus
The monk who defended the use of icons.
Justinian I's powerful wife
The Great Schism
The split in Christianity between East and West. The Church in the West became the Roman Catholic Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church continued to grow in the East, based in Constantinople.
three wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic between 264 BCE and 146 BCE
the government center of the Italian territory of the Byzantine Empire
a political state established by the Roman people that had a representative government for its citizens; it lasted from 509 BCE to 27 BCE.
a state or country, generally Islamic, governed by a ruler known as a sultan
the capital of the island of Sicily during the Byzantine Empire
a religious center of the Byzantine Empire
Reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire
Barbaric invasions, economic collapse and poor political leadership
A technological advancement can be associated with the Byzantine Empire- the aqueducts brought a constant flow of water from distant sources into cities and towns, supplying public baths, latrines, fountains and private households.
The group that took control of several Byzantine trade routes, leading to a decline in profits?
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