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Ap Psych unit 2
Terms in this set (124)
Nature Vs. Nurture
How much of the human experience is biological/genetic an dhow much is contributed by our environment?
The proportion of variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes
Variability is mostly due to environmental factors
Variability is mostly due to genetic factors
Comparing monozygotic twins' characteristics to dizygotic twins' characteristics to observer the impact of nature
A fertilized egg splits into two, twins share 100% of genes
Two eggs are fertilized by two different sperm cells, twins share around 50% of gene
Comparing the similarities and differences between adoptive children and their biological and adoptive families to investigate the role of nature
neural circuits that bypass the brain for quick responses
Why is the reflex arc valuable?
It removes the time it would take to signal to brain
In what order does the reflex arc occur?
Sensory neurons detect stimuli, interneurons integrate the info, motor neurons trigger muscle or gland activity
detect sensory stimuli and internal conditions and transmit it
Neurons in the brain or ganglia that integrate information
motor (efferent) neurons
Trigger muscle or gland activity
What does S.A.M.E. stand for?
Receive messages from other cells
Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
the fatty layer of tissue that covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath to which voltage-gated sodium channels are confined.
Terminal buttons or buds
Form junctions with other cells
In what order does neuronal transmission occur?
Dendrites, cell body, axon, terminal branches
What are the two components of neuron to neuron communication?
Electrical and chemical
A neuron at rest has a voltage of about -70mV
An electrical charge that travels down a neuron (dendrite to terminal branches), depolarization, release of neurotransmitters
What is the all or none principle?
If the threshold is met, neuron fires a full response, if threshold is not met, no response
Minimum voltage needed to fire and action potential (if not strong enough, no electrical signal is passed along)
K+ and Na+ ions
Flow in and out of neurons during signaling
Increasing membrane potential (neuron becomes positive), threshold is reached, Na+ rushes in
Decreasing membrane potential (neuron returns to negative voltage), Na+ channels close, K+ rushes out
overshoots resting potential, neuron becomes to negative, lag on K+ channels closing
What are the phases of action potential?
Depolarization, Repolarization, Hyperpolarization
ensures that action potential only moves one way
The Space between adjacent neurons, electrical signaling reaches terminal buttons, continues to adjacent neuron as a chemical signal
synthesizes and packages the neurotransmitter in synaptic vesicles
How does chemical signaling of neurons start?
The presynaptic neuron synthesizes and packages the neurotransmitter in synaptic vesicles, then during the depolarization of the neuron (action potential) the neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft, bind to the postsynaptic neuron which can initiate action potential in the next neuron
How does the chemical signal start?
Diffusion, reuptake, or digestion
neurotransmitters diffuse out of the synapse
neurotransmitters are taken back up by a neuron, recycled
Enzymes digest neurotransmitters, no longer bind to postsynaptic neuron
depolarizes neuron; encourages an action potential; membrane voltage becomes more positive; approaches thresholds
further polarizes neuron; discourages an action potential; membrane voltage becomes more negative
Enables muscle action, learning and memory
Neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline.
Helps control alertness and arousal
Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal
Influences movement, leaning, attention, and emotion
A major inhibitory neurotransmitter
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
influence the perception of pain and pleasure
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord, integrate signals from various regions of the body
Peripheral nervous system
Outside of brain and spinal cord, carries info into/out of the CNS
What are the stages of information processing in the nervous system?
Sensory input, integration of signals, and motor output
A drug molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action (THC,
A drug molecule that prevents reuptake of a neurotransmitter; increases NT's action (cocaine)
The diminishing effect of a drug after repeated, regular use of the same dosage
psychological need for continued drug use, can lead to uncontrollable cravings and drug abuse
physical need for continued drug use, can lead to uncontrollable cravings and drug abuse
psychological and physical need for continued drug use, can lead to uncontrollable cravings and drug abuse
The discomfort and distress following the discontinuation of drug use
Bind endorphin receptors, pain relief, euphoria, (opium, morphine, heroin)
Stimulate neural activity (Caffeine, nicotine, methamphetamine)
Depress neural activity, can stimulate release of GABA (alcohol, barbituates)
Distorts sensory information (LSD, ecstasy, THC)
autonomic nervous system
Controls the glands of the muscles of internal organs such as the heart
What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
"fight or flight", arouses body, mobilizing its energy
Parasympathetic nervous system
"rest and digest", calms the body, conserving its energy
What are some things that can happen as a result engagement of the sympathetic nervous system?
Pupils dilate, Digestion inhibited, increased blood glucose, blood vessels constrict
What are some things that can happen as a result of engagement of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Pupils constrict, digestion stimulates, waste is processed, blood vessels dilate
What are the two main parts of the nervous system?
central and peripheral nervous system
What are the parts of the CNS?
brain and spinal cord
The Endocrine system
A collection of glands that produce hormones; release hormones directly into the circulatory system
The endocrine system, is often activated by what?
The nervous system
what is the difference between the structure of the nervous and endocrine system?
The nervous system is made of neurons and the endocrine system is made of glands
What is the difference between the communication of the nervous and the ednocrone system?
The nervous system secretes NTs across a synapse while the endocrine system releases hormones
Is the nervous os endocrine system faster?
The nervous system
Wide band of axon fibers connecting the two hemispheres
results when the corpus callous fibers are severs isolating each hemisphere from the other, cross transference does not occur
Left visual field
Is processed by the right hemisphere
Right visual field
is processed by left hemisphere
Why can split brain patients say words sent to the left brain?
Because language centers are in the left center of the brain
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
New connections are made between active neurons to create new alternative
surgically removing one hemisphere of the brain
provide nutrients for neurons, structural support, myelin, maintenance of iron gradients
Pseudoscience that measures the bumps on the skull as determinants of traits and metal abilities
Areas of brain tissue that has been damaged or is deteriorating, can compare lesion/non-lesion patients to determine function
Measures electrical activity in the brain, strengths: cheap, fast, non-invasive, weaknesses: can't tell you where
computerized axial tomography, uses a series of x-rays (radiation) to visualize the brain's structure
injected with radioactive tracer, Strengths: can tell you where, most accurate, weaknesses: slow
magnetic resonance imaging, uses magnetic fields to visualize the brain's structure (expensive, detailed)
Measures O2 levels, can tell you where
What structures make up the "reptilian brain"
Brainstem, spinal cord, medulla oblong ants, pons, cerebellum,
connects to brainstorm
Control of heartbeat, breathing
Motor function, breathing, arousal
sensory relay station, directs sensory info to other parts of the brain
Governs pituitary gland (hormone release)
response to strong emotion, fear, aggression
encodes and processes memory
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
a broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain.
grooves in the brain
ridges of the brain
bundles of myelinated axons
numerous soma, cell bodies, few myelinated axons
Receives and processes sensory information for touch and body position
Receives auditory information, primarily from opposite ear
Processes visual information
Coordinates voluntary movement, balance
Spinal cord, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum
language center located in the left frontal lobe, deals with production of speech
Ability to express speech is impaired
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
The visual processing areas of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes.
the area of the temporal lobe responsible for processing sound information
Language center located in the left temporal lobe, comprehension of speech
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
each hemisphere of the brain controls the opposite side of the body
speaking and language, math calculations, making literal interpretations/logic, controls right side of body
perceptual tasks, making inferences, spatial perception, emotion, controls left side of body
Involved in speaking, motor movements, judgement, and decision making
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