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nutrient metabolism exam 1
Terms in this set (270)
Which of the following pairs are the major dietary carbohydrates?
Disaccharides and Starches;
Some starchy foods, such as beans, barley, hi-maize, long grained brown rice, are digested more ______ and provide a _______ blood sugar.
__________ can be defined as the starches that are not digested and absorbed into the body through the small intestine, but pass through to the large intestine where they act like dietary fiber to improve bowel health
___ Nondigestaible due to a fibrous "shell";
_____ Due to insoluble such as crystalline starches
_____ Small amounts (~5%) are produced due to retrogradation before eating.
_____ Chemically modified resistant starch
____ A new category, manufacturers create these resistant starches through a process that involves heating and cooling starchy foods
give 2 examples of naturally occurring resistant starch
cold pasta, Lentils, oatmeal
name 4 reasons why RS is good for the digestive tract
-prebiotic fiber and reduces intestinal pH -laxative (increases microbiota) -produces short chain FA -water holding to treat diarrhea
what is the most common digestible polysaccharide in foods (cereals, potatoes, legumes, other vegetables, etc)
Starch is formed of _________ chain
About 20% of starch is amylose that has a
_______ chain (______ linkage)
~80% is amylopectin that has _________ chains by both _____ and _____linkages
single alpha 1,4 branched alpha 1,4 and 1,6
Oligosaccharides: _____ units
Polysaccharides: ____ units
3-10, over 10
Homopolysaccharide is composed of a _________type of monosaccharide (starch, glycogen and cellulose
Heteropolysacchride: __________ different types of monosaccharides (hemicellulose)
2 or more
A linear polysaccharide has a reducing end (_________ or _________ end) and a nonreducing end
hemiacetal or hemiketal
name 3 significant energy supplying disaccharides
Maltose, Lactose and Sucrose
All of the following compounds are reducing sugars except:
A. Glucose; B. Sucrose; C. Lactose; D. Fructose; E. Galactose.
Why is sucrose non-reducing?
combines carbonyl carbons of glucose and fructose bc no free ketals
maltose and lactose are ______ sugars
Maltose (alpha-1,4 _______), Lactose (alpha-1,4 ______), and Sucrose (alpha-1,2 _______).
glucose-glucose, galactose and glucose, glucose and fructose
Glycocytic bonds usually combines between 1-4 or 1-6 of two _________
How are glycolytic bonds formed
hydroxyl group of a monosaccharide combines with another minus water an to form a O-glycolytic bond
Can be changed to _______ in ______
D-galactose source of hydrolysis of _______
Failure to metabolize D-galactose can cause
D-fructose can be changed to _____ in the liver
Name 3 sources of fructose
fruit juices, honey, cane sugar
What is the basic source of energy for all cells in the human body?
A. galactose B. celluloseC. amino acids D. glucose
Clinical significance of D-glucose present in the urine in diabetes mellitus due to________ (high blood glucose)
Which of the following properties best describes pentoses?
Pentoses provide a significant amount of energy;
Pentoses are key constituents of NADP+;
Pentoses are used for synthesis of hexoses;
Pentoses are prevalent in diet;
Pentoses are aldoses.
B. Pentoses are key constituents of NADP+;
Pentose sugar is not prevalent in the diet so it.....
does not provide a significant amount of energy
________ is readily synthesized within the cell primarily as a key constituent of ATP, ADP, AMP, cAMP, NAD+, NADP+ and RNA
_________ is used for synthesis of DNA.
________ is reduced ribose and used as a constituent of riboflavin (FAD and FMN)
The structure of a monosaccharide can be depicted as......
A straight chain (fischer projection) naturally occurring from a ring structure (Hawthorne)
Pathway by which glucose is converted into
glycogen (liver, skeletal muscle and adipose)
Hexokinase is negatively modulated by __________(allosteric modulation)
Glucokinase is inducible by insulin (___________ modulation)
Glucokinase has much higher ____ than
___________ by glucokinase in liver or
hexokinase in muscle cells to Glu-6-P (-ATP
________regulation by binding an modulator at allosteric site, a site other than the enzyme active site.
Either allosteric ____________ to enhance the enzyme's activity or allosteric ________ to decrease the enzyme's activity
Either glucokinase in liver or hexokinase in muscle cells is a key enzyme that controls glycogenesis pathway.
A. True B. False
Pathway by which glucose is released from glycogen
Cleave glycosidic bond to release Glu-1-P by__________ (step-limiting enzyme to control glycogenolysis, active a form (phosphorylated state) vs. inactive b form, hormonal and allosteric enzyme modulation)
Glycogenolysis-Convert Glu-1-P to Glu-6-P by ______________
Glycogenolysis-Convert Glu-6-P to Glu by glucose 6- phosphatase (only in_______ but not muscle and adipose tissues)
Under ___________, Pyruvate enters mitochondrion for complete oxidation
Pyruvate can be converted to ________ or produced from various _________ (linkage between protein & carbohydrate metabolism)
alanine; amino acids
Pyruvate is also a main precursor of ___________ in the Krebs cycle
Which of the following pairs of enzymes is allosterically regulated in skeletal muscle?
Phosphofructokinase and glucokinase;
Hexokinase and glucose 6-phosphatase;
Phosphoglycerate kinase and phosphofructokinase;
Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase;
Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase.
Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase.
During this process, energy stored in glucose is released to form 4-2=_________ (anaerobic) or 2ATP + 2NADH (aerobic condition)
NADH cannot enter mitochondrion directly, but can be transported indirectly by ________ system to NADH (3ATP) or by glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle system to FADH (2ATP)
malate- aspartate shuttle
How many mols of ATP (or equivalent high- energy phosphate bonds) can be formed by the oxidation of one glucose unit (-1, 4 linked) in glycogen to lactic acid?
A. 2; B. 3; C. 8; D. 24; E. 38.
where can gluconeogensis be bypassed through
cytoplasm, and mitochondria
Pyruvate kinase bypass involves the compounds of _______ in mitochondrion to enter gluconeogenesis, which is related to glucogenic amino acids
______ is a primary gluconeogenic tissue, but______and a______ tissues are NOT (lack of glucose-6- phosphatase).
Liver; muscle and adipose
________: muscle or red blood cell-derived lactate is transported to liver and then return of glucose.
What are the 5 theoretical contributors to body weight
water, fat, protein, minerals, carbohydrates
What is the top element in the human body
what is the basic living structure and functional unit of the human body
what are the cells of multicellular organs called
what is cell growth-proliferation
DNA synthesis, creation of more DNA to make more cells
cell termonology differentiation
cells acquire a specific type, stem cells are undifferentiated
cell terminology apoptosis
cell death, only differentiated cells go through this
what happens in M phase
spindle assembly checkpoint (chromosome attachment to the spindle)
what happens in G1
Check for cell size nutrients growth factors and DNA damage
Check point for cell size and DNA replication
contains cell DNA
Processes and packages proteins after they leave the RER
contains cell organelles proteins etc
produce ATP used by the cell
contains digestive enzymes that break up proteins lipids and nucleic acids; remove and recycle waste products
contains ribosomes that build and process proteins
Involved in lipid synthesis
makes communication possible between the nucleus and the cytoplasmic matrix
composed primary of phospholipids and proteins which form lipid bilayers (prevents passage of water soluble components)
The organelle that serves as the digestive system in the cell is the _____ : A. polysome; B. endosome; C. lysosome; D. ribosome; E. intestine.
Membrane proteins serve various functions-_____, receptors, energy transducers and _________
___________ embedded in the membrane and held by hydrophobic interactions such as receptor and carrier proteins
_________ located on or near surface and held by ionic interactions for cell recognition
What stabilizes the plasma membrane
Peripheral proteins function primarily as ion channels and active transportersA. True; B. False.
Cytoplasmic matrix consists of cytoskeleton by ______ (microtubular lattice) in _______ phase
what 5 pathways occur in the cytoplasmic matrix
Glycolysis, PPP Pathway, Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, FA synthesis
What does PPP Pathway do
Hexose into pentose
_________ is condensed region of DNA with histones and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acidis a long polymer of nucleotide bases, with a backbone of ______ and _______, which contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms.
sugars and phosphate atoms
________ - entire genetic DNA within cell
Nucleotide - nitrogenous core (________or ______) plus pentose sugar (_____or______) plus phosphate
purine or pyrimidine; ribose or deoxyribose
What are Purine nucleotides
adenine and guanine
what are pyrimidine nucelotides
cytosine and uridine (RNA) or Thymidine (DNA)
Cell signaling communicates the need to synthesize a ___ to the nucleus
Transcription of a gene in the nucleus results in the synthesis of a strand of ________
What is cell signaling?A. the process a cell goes through before it becomes functionalB. nerve impulses that cause motionC. biochemical reactions that convey a message to a DNA promoterD. the process of protein catabolism
C. biochemical reactions that convey a message to a DNA promoter
Genetic variations, or variants, are the differences that make each person's genome unique due to:- single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-_________- _______ (mutations)- structural variants, etc.
___________ Detecting gene variants within an individual-Discovering their interact with environmental factors and effect on dysfunction or disease
________ identifying environmental factors that affect gene expression-Identifying which genes respond to which environmental factors-Determining useful health-related applications
Study of changes in gene expression by nutrients such as DNA methylation and histone modification
what are the 3 major protein types
receptors, transport proteins, enzymes
Receptors are typically_________ that are located on the cell membrane as recognition markers for external stimuli (e.g. hormones, growth factors, stress, etc.).
molecular stimuli that attach to receptors
name 3 types of receptors
-internal chemical signals-ion channels-internalized stimuli like insulin
Ligand binds with its receptor on the ___________.
2.Ligand and receptor move into a _________-coated vesicle.
3.The vesicle forms an _________.
4.Ligand can be used by the cell or undergo lysosomal degradation
What can a Na/K ATPase pump carry
3 Na out and 2K+ in
transport proteins are necessary for absorption of ___ and ____
glucose and amino acids
Functional activity of an enzyme depends on a nonprotein prosthetic group called a?
Cofactor (Bvitamins or inorganic materials)
enzymes are highly _____
Reaction velocity ________ with increased ________ until reaching enzyme saturation (Vmax) after which an increase in substrate will not increase the velocity
what is Michaelis constant (Km)
concentration of the substrate at half of Vmax
what does a high Km mean
low affinity but goof capacity to bind to the substrate
Glucokinase in liver has a _____ Km than hexokinase in ___, adipose and other tissues
What organelle generates the most metabolic energy as ATP
the mitochondria membrane is composed of what layers
outer membrane-porous, inner membrane- selectively permeable
mitochondria __________ oxygen for oxidative phosphorylation (coupled reaction)
what 4 metabolic reactions occur in the mitochondria
krebs cycle, B-oxidation of fatty acids, oxidative decarboxylation, some amino acid metabolism
what is energy defined as
the ability to do work
what are 2 basic types of energy
kinetic and potential
Kinetic energy is energy in ______ such as _____ and _____
motion; heat and light
Potential energy is ___ energy such as _______
stored; chemical bonds
the sum total of the energy using and energy releasing chemical reactions.
refers to those reactions that build complex molecules out of simpler building blocks by using energy (biosynthesis)
the breaking down of the complex molecules to simpler molecules either to yield or spend energy.
name the 5 major types of metabolic reactions (think FERCC)
Function group transfer
What is potential energy in a chemical bond is called
free energy (G)
Gproducts - Greactants =
If delta G is negative its a
exothermic reaction and spontaneous
if delta G is positive
the reaction is endothermic non-spontaneous
enzymes do what to activation energy
they lower it
if the final energy is lower than the initial energy its what type of reaction
if the final activation energy is higher than the initial energy that reaction is
a reaction that is non-spontaneous can be _____ with other reactions to make final delta G negative
____________ (a reaction to form ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP)
substrate level phosphorylation
____________(a metabolic pathway to form ATP by using energy released from nutrient oxidation).
what is the net output of NAD and FAD during oxidative phosphorylation
NAD=3ATP, FAD=2 ATP
NADH carries reduced electrons to _____ FADH is bound to _______ complex that passes electrons to_____ and _____
complex 1; succinate dehydrogenase; CoQ and cytochrome b-c1
Accessory organs-______ glands-Liver-_________-Pancreas
Gastrointestinal tract-Oral cavity-_________-Stomach-Small intestine-Large intestine
accessory organs provide or store_________ that ultimately delivered to the lumen of the digestive tract and aid in the _________
secretions, digestive process
Where does bile come from
biles is provided by the liver via gallbladder
2 types of pancreas secretary tissues
Ductless endocrine cells, acinar or ducted exocrine cells
_______ that secrete primarily insulin and glucagon into the blood;
Ductless endocrine cells
_________ that excrete digestive enzymes and pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and water)
acinar or ducted exocrine cells
5 functions of the GI Tracts
movement of food (peristalsis)
storage of elimination of solid waste*
Stomach volume ranges from ____ to ____
What are the 4 layers of the GI tract?
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa or adventitia
Intestine mucosa has a huge absorptive surface area via:
villi and microvilli
_______ mucosa forms multitudes of projections which protrude into the lumen and are covered with epithelial cells.
__________ the lumenal plasma membrane of absorptive epithelial cells is studded with densely-packed microvilli (brush border)
The ingested nutrients are usually _________ on microvilli and ________ by the matured mucosal epithelium (enterocytes)
The activities of the digestive system are regulated by both regulatory ________ and _______ reflexes
peptides and neural
what secretes regulatory peptides or hormones
endocrine cells among the epithelial cells
what are the 4 epithelial cells of mucosa that secrete peptides or hormones
Gastrin, CCK (cholescytokinin), secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide)
Gastrin production sites and function
Stomach and small intestine, stimulates gastric acid secretion and pepsinogen secretion
Cholecytokinin production and function
small intestine and enteric nerves; stimulates gallbladder contraction, sphincter of oddi relaxation, pancreatic enzyme secretion
Secretin production and function
small intestine; stimulates pancreas juice secretion, diminishes gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion
Motilin production and function
stomach and intestines; stimulates gastric and intestinal motility between meals
Gluocse dependent insulinotropic peptides production and function
stimulates insulin secretion; may diminish gastric acid secretion
______ Ulcerations or erosions in mucosa and submucosa layers of the stomach, duodenum, or lower esophagus what is the common cause?
peptic ulcer disease; helicobacter pylori or NSAIDS, H2 receptors treat it
what controls the GI secretions and peristalsis as well as many digestive processes
Mouth -> moistening and________ breakdown
Stomach -> _______ food to kill microorganisms &initial ________ digestion
Small intestine-> ________ food and _______ nutrients
digest and absorb
Pancreatic basic juices_> ________ the acidic chyme and contain digest_________
Gallbladder-> bile to ________ the _____ for lipase
Large intestine->________ reabsorption and storage of _______ material.
Acid secretion in the________ cells of the stomach
what proton pump is used mainly during digestion
The bicarbonate is transported into the blood by 2ndactive transport in exchange for ______
Protein digestion in the
Pepsinogen I/II are converted into active endopeptidase ______ by acid or pepsin.
_______ hydrolyze peptide bonds.
_______ hydrolyzes carboxylic acid end of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, glutamate, and aspartate.
what are the end products of protein digestion
large polypeptides with some oligiopeptides and amino acids
Pancreas provides bicarbonate for neutralizing acid chyme and also major enzymes for digestion of 4 things
carbs proteins nucleic acids and fat
________ is the primary enzyme for starch digestion
pancreatic alpha amylase
Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes _________
Phospholipase cleaves ________
__________ hydrolyzes cholesterol esters.
Liver form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of ______ and the ________
fats and fat soluble vitamins
_______ is a toxic breakdown product of hemoglobin that must be eliminated via bile
what are 2 major bile acids
Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid
digestion Induce emulsification of lipid into microscopic droplets called
Over 90% of the bile in the body is recycled, secreted in the _______and taken up in the________by active transport
duodenum ; ileum
Bile acids account for_________, e.g., drug (Questran) binds bile acids and promotes excretion, thus reducing blood cholesterol levels.
4 parts of large intestine
cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal
About 90‐95% of the _________ is reabsorbed. in the large intestine
water and sodium
Several __‐vitamins and vitamin __ are produced by bacteria in the colon
b and k
__________and_____________- fatty acids produced during fermentation of carbohydrate
Lactic acid and three short‐chain fatty acids produced during fermentation of carbohydrate
_______ Live bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, yeast, E. coli, and Bacillus)
______Act as substrates for gut bacteria
_______----Combination of a probiotic with a prebiotic
Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy _____ or ______
aldehydes or ketones
carbohydrates main functional groups are
hydroxyl and carbonyl groups (aldehyde or ketone
carbs supply how much total energy intake
Carbohydrates are _______ active that means light will be passed either as __ or ___
optically D or L
in order for a compound to be optically active, it needs to have ________ chiral carbons attached by ____ different atoms or groups.
one or more; 4
f a monosaccharide has more than one chiral carbon, D or L is based upon the ______ numbered chiral carbon
which monosaccharides are naturally occurring form in dietary carbs
what is the major stored form of carbs in human tissue mainly in the liver and skeletal muscle
glycogen is branched with what bonds
alpha 1-6 and alpha 1-4
Glucose will be sequentially released by enzyme from________ ends of the glycogen chains
Major component of cell walls in plants
ellulose is linear homopolysaccharide of glucose by ______ linkage
GI absorption is restricted to ________
tarch is digested by _________ in _______ and small intestine to maltose, maltotriose and branched di- or tri-saccharides
alpha amylase in the mouth
Disaccharides digest in the________of the small intestinal mucosal cells by lactase, sucrase, maltase and isomaltase
____and_____ are absorbed into mucosal cells by active transport, whereas _______ enters by facilitated diffusion
glucose and galactose; fructose
Glucose or galactose carrier is a protein complex dependent on ________ pump
following transport across the gut wall, galactose and fructose enter the portal circulation to _____
lood glucose level is regulated by _________ (insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids, etc.)
n the liver, Glu may enter ________or_________, or exported into circulation
glycogenesis or glycolysis
lu is metabolized either ________(e.g. liver, brain, red muscle cells & heart) or _________(e.g. red blood cells, intestinal cells and white muscle cells)
aerobic or anaerobically
aerobic metabolism (completed oxidation) results in ______ and ____
ATP and CO2
naerobic metabolism results in ______ and less _____ (uncompleted oxidation)
lactate and less atp
aerobic metabolism occurs in ________
2 types of skeletal muscles
red muscle fiber (I slow twitch) white muscle fiber (II fast twitch)
generally speaking, Glu metabolizes through completed oxidation in ____ muscle fibers
lu metabolizes through uncompleted oxidation in ______ muscle fibers
cellulose linear polymer of______ glucose units
lant cell wall consists of many strands of _______
Heterogeneous group of polysaccharides containing xylose, mannose and galactose etc.
relative high hemicellulose foods: ______ and ______
bran and whole grains
polysaccharides in which galacturonic acid is a primary constituent
pectin forms part of middle _______ in plant cell wall as intercellular cement
igh pectin foods: apples, ___________and citrus fruits
igh cellulose foods: bran, ________, peas, root vegetables, cabbage & apple skins
gums are secreted at the site of plant ______
gums are composed of a variety of ________ and derivatives
ihgh gum foods: _________, barley and legumes
Mucilages are secreted to protect ______ _______ from desiccation
mucilages are degraded by ______ _______
high mucilage foods: ______ and seaweed
main noncarbohydrate component of fiber
lignin three-dimensional polymer of______ units
high lignin foods: _________ wheat and strawberry
________ fibers delay absorption of carbohydrate that may improve glucose tolerance (a lower glycemic index)
poorly _________ fibers (e.g. wheat bran & cellulose) are the dilutors for carcinogens, thus may prevent colorectal cancer.
Prolonged contraction of the colon, usually in the left lower side, may result in _________
Diverticulosis pockets sometimes become infected (________) or even bleed & cause infection or inflammation of the abdomen.
60% of humans of Westernized societies develop diverticulosis due to __________ dietary fiber intake
Fiber deficiency also causes a decrease of colon ______ response and permits a low-grade chronic inflammatory process.
high-fiber diet may increase the _____ in the stool, expand the inside walls of the colon, and thereby _____ the pressure within the colon.
recommendations for children and adult fiber intake
child: 5+ g/day adult: 24-30g/day
How does gut microbiome become hot?May convert fiber to the _________ fatty acids:
______________ synthesis & degradation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids•
_______(mostly in plants and micro-organisms): in addition to primary metabolism, many metabolic pathways lead to the formation of special chemical compounds (secondary metabolites, phytochemicals or natural products)
secondary metabolites: Most are potentially active in various disease prevention or treatment, they could be used in humans as "Natural Medicines" or __________
________: naturally-derived, bioactive phytochemicals that have health benefits
______ include flavonoids, anthocyanins, coumarins, phenylpropamides, tannins & lignin, etc.
All phenolic compounds, in one way or another, are synthesized via "_________ acid pathway"
Shikimic Acid Pathwayconverts intermediates from glycolysis (phosphoenol-pyruvate) and the Pentose Phosphate pathway (erythrose-4-PO4) into the ____________: phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine
aromatic amino acids
External stimuli can modulate the synthesis and therefore change the _________ composition or quantities of phenolic compounds in the plants
external stimuli modulating phenols include
UV radiation, insect saliva, microbial infections
citrus flavonoids include:- _________ in oranges- __________ in grapefruit
Hesperetin and naringenin
________ is responsible for the cloudy appearance of orange juice due to poor solubility
__________ is the main bitter principle in grapefruit
ea leaves contain more than ___ dry weight in polyphenols
reen tea is rich ________ (catechin, etc)
lack tea has ________ levels due to oxidative fermentation
tea consumption may protect against________ and ________
cancer and heart disease
compelling studies have suggest_________ may prevent- Menopausal symptoms- Osteoporosis - Cancer- Heart disease
or centuries, people have taken ________ to enhance athletic performance and thin blood
________ are a subclass of flavonoids with an electric charge that causes the pigmentsof flowers or other plant parts
_________ and ______ are the best-known dietary sources of anthocyanidins
purple grapes and red wines
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