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A book rests on the surface of the table. Consider the following four forces mat arise in this situation: (a) the force of the Earth pulling on the book, (b) the force of the table pushing on the book, (c) the force of the book pushing on the table, and (d) the force of the book pulling on the Earth. The book is not moving. Which pair of forces must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction even though they are not an interaction pair? Explain.
A cylinder fitted with a piston contains 0.5 kg of R-134a at , with a quality of 50 percent. The R-134a now expands in an internally reversible polytropic process to ambient temperature , at which point the quality is 100^. Any heat transfer is with a constant-temperature source, which is at . Find the polytropic exponent n and show that this process satisfies the second law of thermodynamics.