Confederation to Constitution
Review for quiz
Terms in this set (31)
Constitution Convention is called in Philadelphia to revise (fix) the AOC. Ultimately, a stronger federal government is created. George Washington was made President of the Convention.
The group of delegates that wanted to abolish the AOC and create a new stronger federal gov't. Included James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay.
The group of delegates that wanted to keep the AOC and maintain a gov't with stronger states. Included Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Patrick Henry. Anti Federalists Writings argue against ratification (Mercy Otis Warren, Federal Farmer)
Why was a new government necessary?
1. Because the Articles of Confederation were weak and inefficient in governing the country
2. Shays' Rebellion was put down but delegates worried about the security of the country without a strong military or strong central government
Considered, to be the "Father of the Constitution." James Madison greatly influenced the creation of the Constitution. He took over 600 pages of notes about what was happening at the convention.
Large populous states wanted representation in Congress to be based on population.
New Jersey Plan
Small states wanted equal representation in congress for all states.
The Great Compromise
created a bicameral legislature or two-house congress.
House of Representatives (based on Virginia Plan) members for each state would be based on population.
Senate (New Jersey Plan) members would be equal with 2 senators from each state
The 3/5 Compromise
Compromise stated that slaves would count as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in Congress and for purposes of taxation..
Every five slaves would equal three free people for representation/tax purposes.
Individual Rights Compromise
Wanted a strong federal (national) government.
Bill of Rights not necessary to guarantee individual citizens rights and protection against government. They believed separation of powers and checks and balances protected people.
Believed that states should have more power than the federal government.
Bill of Rights necessary to protect all citizens' individual rights from being violated by the government.
influenced establish the American legal system.
Developed the principles of separation of powers and checks and balances. Many of the Federalist Papers referenced Montesquieu.
Who did the Federalists and Anti Federalists represent?
Federalists: rich bankers, merchants, land owners in the North.
Anti Federalists: Small farmers, laborers (poor and middle class)
How did the Federalists and Anti Federalists believe a Republic would work?
Federalists: believed a republican form of government could work in geographical large and heavily populated nation such as the USA.
Anti Federalists: Believed that USA too big and diverse to meet the needs of the people.
How did the Federalists and Anti Federalists believe representation in Congress should be decided?
Federalists wanted a proportional representation of the states in Congress. Population and the subsequent wealth of the states should determine representation.
Anti-Federalists wanted equal representation for each state in Congress.
How much power should the president have and how should he be elected president, according the Federalists and Anti Federalists?
Federalists wanted a strong executive (president). Indirect election. (people too uneducated)
Anti-Federalists wanted a weak executive. Direct Elections.
Compromise = Electoral College for presidential election.
Federal government gains ability to regulate/control foreign trade and tax imports but there would be no export taxes.
Congress could not interfere or limit the slave trade for 20 years
Strengths of the Articles of Confederation
1 To declare war and make peace.
2 To coin and borrow money
3 To detail with foreign countries and sign treaties
4 To operate post offices
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
1. Federal government could not regulate trade.
2. The national government could not force the states to obey its laws.
3. It did not have the power to tax
4. It did not have the power to enforce laws
5. There was no national army or navy
6. There was no system of national courts
7. Each state could issue its own paper money
8. Each state could put tariffs on trade between states.
Established principles. and procedures for orderly expansion of the United States. This allowed the Ohio River Valley to be settled. Once the population reached 60,000, it could apply for statehood. Settlers in this area earned basic rights such as freedom of religion. Slavery was banned.
A farmer rebellion in Massachusetts. Shays' Rebellion greatly alarmed politicians throughout the nation. Proponents of restructuring the federal government cited the rebellion as justification for revision or replacement of the Articles of Confederation, and Shays' Rebellion figured prominently in the debates over the framing and ratification of the Constitution.
3/5th Compromise (southern perspective)
Wanted to count slaves towards population count in order to increase representation in the House of Representatives.
3/5th Compromise (northern perspective)
Did not want to count slaves towards population to increase power in Congress.
Commerce Compromise (northern perspective)
Wanted the federal government to have the power to regulate trade (tariffs). wanted trade laws to be the same for all states. Wanted tariffs on imports/exports and a ban on slave trade.
Commerce Compromise (southern perspective)
Did not want tariffs, especially export taxes, and slaves' owners did not want a tax or ban on importing slaves
Presidential Compromise (federalist perspective)
Want a strong executive branch with a president selected by an indirect election.
Presidential Compromise (anti federalist perspective)
Want a weak executive branch with a president selected by an direct election. Wanted the president to be an "employee" of Congress.
Presidential Compromise (results)
An executive branch is created with checks on it's power by congress. The president is selected by electoral college (indirect method).
Electoral College System
delegates assign to each state a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators; instituted because the delegates at Philadelphia feared that too much democracy might lead to mob rule.
I smell a rat
Patrick Henry (anti federalist) concerned with a strong national gov't.