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American National Government POS2041 Ch.1-5
Terms in this set (100)
What country has the oldest written constitution in the world?
John Adams and many others who would end up writing the founding documents of America believed in a system, which is known as a __________, where the people would set up and agree upon the basic rules and procedures that would govern them.
Separation of Powers
The vertical division of power in the Constitution is called
Shortly after the ratification of the Constitution, people began to form competing groups called ______, which were organized to win elections.
Another way of describing "natural rights", those rights so fundamental that government cannot take them away, is "unalienable rights".
__________ is rule by and for the people.
The constitutional division of power horizontally, into layers, between the national and state governments is known as
Passions would outweigh judgments about the common good
Madison and the other Framers saw pure democracy, where people ruled directly, as a place where
A sizable number of Americans have described themselves as __________; that is, they believe that the government should not interfere in economic or social matters.
When someone opposes concentrated wealth and adheres to traditional moral values, they are called
Groups of citizens who share a common interest by trying to influence public policy to benefit themselves are known as
__________, on the right end of the political spectrum, believe that lower taxes will prompt greater economic growth that will ultimately benefit everyone, including the poor.
The process by which competing interests determine who gets what, when, and how is called
When people have a fairly consistent set of views over a range of policy choices, they are said to have a(n)
The idea that each citizen must have a chance to have his or her voice heard in government is the root of
__________ provide the most common way to remove elected officials and are the primary mechanisms for forging responsiveness.
Equality of Outcome
The Supreme Court's decision in Plyler v. Doe is an example of
Neighborhood watch groups and soup kitchens are examples of
If you were born between 1982 and 2003, you are the generation that social science researchers have identified as
__________ interest is the idea that citizens get involved in the political process because they want to be part of the voluntary organizations of civil society that enable communities to flourish.
The right not to be taxed without their consent
By the late eighteenth century, British subjects believed that the British constitution guaranteed them certain rights, including the right to be tried by a jury of their peers and
Who wrote the influential pamphlet Common Sense, which called for independence from Britain?
A _______ is the fundamental law undergirding the structure of government.
King George III
The Declaration of Independence listed grievances against __________, including the suspension of popularly elected colonial legislatures, taxing without representation, and trials without juries.
"no taxation without representation"
Led by Samuel Adams, the Massachusetts legislature issued a letter declaration that the Townshend Acts were unconstitutional because they violated which principle?
All of the above. (Includes: Foreign Affairs, Military Affairs, Indian Affairs, & Boundary and other disputes between the states)
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had full authority over
A Revolutionary War hero and several thousand distressed farmers forced courts to close and threatened federal arsenals in what became known as
National law would be supreme
Congress did not receive the authority to veto state laws, but the Constitution declared that
Who initially chose the manner for selecting the electors from each state?
The indirect election of senators was intended to serve as a check on
Regardless of population, each state would have an equal say in Congress.
Under the New Jersey Plan, each state would have equal representation, meaning that
The larger the population, the more representation a state would have.
Under the Virginia Plan, each legislative chamber would have representation proportional to the population of the states, meaning that
Under the _______, states were granted extra representation based on the number of slaves they held.
All powers not granted to Congress remain with the states, as made explicit in the __________ Amendment to the Constitution.
The House of Representatives
The sole power of impeachment belongs to
The president appoints federal judges with the advice and consent of the
By the time the state ratifying conventions started meeting, two distinct camps had formed: those who supported the Constitution called __________, and those who opposed the Constitution, who became known as __________.
Federalists opposed incorporating a bill of rights because they believed it was not necessary. They were also concerned that if they included a list of rights, some might believe that rights not specifically included in the list could be violated.
Significant changes to our constitutional system, such as the emergence of political parties, have occurred through the creation of new institutions.
The Constitution can only be changed through the Amendment process.
Most of the world's largest countries are confederal.
A __________ exists when people have a sense of common identity due to a common origin, history, or ancestry, all of which the colonists shared.
Unitary or Confederal
At the time the Constitution was written, virtually all the world's governments were either
In a _________, independent states grant powers to a national government.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Under current U.S. law, if a heterosexual couple is married in Las Vegas, they are married in all 50 states due to the ___________ of the Constitution.
The Constitution requires agreements between two or more states to receive the approval of
All of the above. (Includes: Passing bills of attainder, passing ex post facto laws, taxing imports and exports, and entering into any treaty or alliance with foreign nations)
The Constitution prohibits the state governments from
A form of government in which political power is exercised directly by citizens is a(n)
Necessary and Proper Clause
Congress exercises its implied powers through the
Powers held by both the national and state governments in a federal system are called
The __________ Act of 1964 prohibits job discrimination and segregation in public accommodations.
Formally leave the union
Vice President John C. Calhoun argued that states had the right to nullify laws as well as secede from the union if they desired. To secede means that the state(s)
The right of the states to reject national laws that would be beyond the powers granted in the Constitution is referred to as
__________ federalism recognizes that while the national government is supreme in some spheres, the state governments remain supreme in others, with layers of authority separate from one another, an arrangement that political scientists compared to a "layer cake."
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court fostered the view that the system of government was _______-centered.
Increased since World War II
Congress originally played almost no role in public school (K-12) education; that role has
The Nixon administration began a trend, labeled as __________, of shifting powers back to the states.
Veto certain parts of spending bills without vetoing the entire bill.
Most states grant their governors a line-item veto, which is the ability to
Enabling more people to live under laws that are made locally.
Overall, federalism enhances democracy by
A large-scale republic
Madison and the Framers preferred __________ over local democracies, fearful that local majorities would infringe on the rights of local minorities.
What process did the Supreme Court settle on to incorporate provisions of the Bill of Rights as binding on the states?
Writ of Habeas Corpus
The right of individuals who have been arrested and jailed to go before a judge, who determines whether their detention is legal, is known as
Both A and B are true. (Includes: that the government has a compelling interest in passing the law and that the law is narrowly drawn to meet the governmental interest)
Under the compelling interest test, the federal government or a state can limit rights only if the Supreme Court decides
(a) the government has a compelling interest in passing the law.
Under the compelling interest test, the federal government or a state can limit rights only if the Supreme Court decides that
The Supreme Court applied the provisions of the Bill of Rights to the states through the process of
In a case involving U.S. citizen Jose Padilla, the Supreme Court ruled that citizens could not be
During World War I, Congress passed the __________ Act of 1917, which made it a crime to obstruct military recruiting.
During times of war, the government's increased concern for order and citizens' increased concerns about security generally find civil liberties being
The Supreme Court has ruled that Congress must authorize hearings to determine the legality of the detention of even foreign enemy combatants and that such hearings must be consistent with the __________, an international treaty that protects the rights of prisoners of war.
Clear and present danger test
What First Amendment test requires the state to prove there is a high likelihood that the speech in question would lead to a danger that Congress has the right to prevent?
Nonverbal activities that convey a political message, such as saluting the flag, burning the flag, or burning draft cards, are referred to as
Symbolic speech does not enjoy the same protections as verbal or printed speech.
In the 1960s, the Supreme Court ruled that certain types of nonverbal activities, such as flag burning or students wearing black armbands to school, were protected under the First Amendment as
The __________ clause of the First Amendment prevents Congress from recognizing one church by law as the nation's official church, as Britain had done with the Anglican (Episcopal) Church.
Valid Secular Purpose
Generally, states need only have a(n) __________ to pass laws that also happen to restrict religious practices.
The Supreme Court decided in 2008 that there is a(n) __________ right to possess a gun, at least for self-defense in one's home.
The __________ Amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
If acquitted by a jury, the _______ clause ensures that the accused cannot be tried for the same crime again.
In 1973, the Court ruled in Roe v. Wade that a national right to ________ existed.
While the Supreme Court is not accountable to the voters like the Congress and the President are accountable, Congress and the President have ways to hold the Court accountable.
Equality of Outcome
The expectation that equality is achieved if results are comparable for all citizens, and that all citizens are proportionally represented in measures of success in life is known as ____________.
__________ are rights related to the duties of citizenship and the opportunities for participation in civic life that the government is obliged to protect.
Full-fledged membership in a nation is called ______
The states continued the English policy of __________, which granted married women no rights independent of their husbands.
The__________ Act of 1924 placed quotas for ethnic groups based on the proportion of Americans from each nationality resident in 1890, thereby severely limiting the number of whites considered to be of "lower race," that is, those from southern and eastern Europe.
Congress first allowed nonwhites to become naturalized citizens in __________, when it extended naturalization to "persons of African descent."
The__________ banned slavery in the territories that were north of the southern border of Missouri.
New York allowed unwed fathers, but not unwed mothers, to block the adoption of their children.
Which of the following discriminations was NOT true at some point in U.S. history?
Civil Rights Act
The__________ of 1866 guaranteed the right of freedmen to make contracts, sue in court if those contracts were violated, and own property.
Pressure by those discriminated against
The book suggests that __________ brought about the government's shift from enforcing discrimination to protecting against it.
In Loving v. Virginia (1967), the Court struck down __________, finding no compelling interest in a law that prohibited interracial marriage.
Equal Pay Act
The _________ was an act passed by Congress in 1963 that prohibits employers from paying different wages for the same job on account of sex.
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.
The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act overturned the Supreme Court's ruling in
All of the above. (Includes: the legal right of private businesses to discriminate, prohibitions on the right to vote, state-sponsored segregation of schools, and state-sponsored segregation of buses.)
What legal barriers did African Americans face after World War II?
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The __________ is an independent agency with commissioners selected for five-year fixed terms, which Congress established as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
On December 1, 1955, police arrested __________ for refusing to give her seat on a bus to a white person.
How many states allow prison inmates to vote?
In the State of Florida, felons may vote once they have paid their debt to society.
The equal protection clause of the __________ prohibits states from denying to any person -— in other words, not just citizens -— equal protection under the law.
Rational Basis Standard
The Court reviews laws that discriminate against legal immigrants using strict scrutiny. However, the Court only reviews laws that discriminate against undocumented workers under the
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