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Media and Society midterm review *official one :)
Terms in this set (87)
The process by which content that has traditionally been confined to one medium appears on multiple media channels.
Lines between media blurred
Using two forms of media at the same time and interacting with both.
Example of convergence in the media: ability to move digital content from one medium to anothero Digital convergence is at the heart of distribution of content across blurred media boundaries (boundaries are blurring because more media content is becoming digitalized)o Digital convergence is placing more influence and dominance in the hands of media conglomerates, increasing theeir power
• Convergence: coming together. (lines between media are blurred); saturation, medium, ownership, use (refers to convergence of different media, ownership of different media, and saturation of media throughout society)
o Example of convergence in the media: ability to move digital content from one medium to another - iPhone, iPod, TV, CD player all in one now
o Digital convergence: the coming together of computer technologies as the basis for production, distribution and exhibition in many media industries
o Digital convergence is at the heart of distribution of content across blurred media boundaries (boundaries are blurring because more media content is becoming digitalized)
o Digital convergence is placing more influence and dominance in the hands of media conglomerates, increasing their power
Examples of convergence
iPhone, iPod, TV, CD player are all on one screen now
Four main functions of mass communication
to inform, persuade, entertain, sell, and build community
Four main uses of media
Surveillance:Using the media to learn about what is happening in the world around us
enjoyment:personal gratification an individual gets from from the media
companionship: Parasocial interaction
interpretation:Using the media to find out why things are happening — who or what is the cause — and what to do about them
Three lenses through which we study media
6 characteristics of media literate person:Traits
-knowledgeable about influences that guide media organizations
-up to date on political issues relating to the media
-sensitive in ways of seeing media content as a means of learning about culture
-knowledgeable about scholarship involving media effects
- able to enjoy media materials in a sophisticated way
6 principles of of media literacy: Principles
-Media materials construct our our individual realities
-media are influenced by industrial pressures
-media are influenced by political pressures
-media are constrained by format
-audiences are active recipients of the media
-the media tell us about who we are as a society
Six main media literacy tools: Tools
Consider Authorship: Who created this message and why are they sending it?
Evaluate the audience: who are the intended targets for these media materials? how might people understand these materials similarly and differently?
Determine the institutional purpose: Why is the content being sent?
Analyze the content: What values, lifestyles, and points of view are represented in (or omitted from) this message?
Identify the creative techniques: what curative technologies are being used to attract my attention?
-Media Fragmentation:we live in an era of different sources of news. If stations don't have good ratings, they get cancelled, and one way they get good ratings is to broadcast controversy.
-Audience segmentation:The process of dividing audience members into segments based on background and lifestyle in order to send them messages targeted to their specific characteristics
-distribution of products across media boundaries:
process by which the source translates the thoughts and ideas so that they can be perceived by the human senses- primarily sight and sound
reverse of the encoding process- process by which the receiver translates the source's thoughts and ideas so they have a meaning
Three stages of a media product
Production:the creation of mass media materials for distribution through one or more mass media vehicles
Distribution:the delivery of the produced material to the point where it will be shown to its intended audience
Exhibition: the activity of presenting mass media materials to audiences for viewing or purchase
Agenda Setting Theory
Media doesn't specify what we think, but what we think about
Media may not tell people what to think, but it does tell people what to think ABOUT
-"propaganda model" argues that media's agenda is set by a combo of government and corporate forces intent on protecting the interest or the rich and powerful
-News content is influenced by:
-media corp.s are profit oriented, ownership is heavily concentrated
-depend on advertising as their primary income source
-media rely on officially approved sources and experts
-powerful players are able to deliver "flak" about media content of which they disapprove
They provide media whether they think you'll like it or not, they make it because they feel it is important.
Media has a responsibility to contribute to a better society/better information
What people need. (Documentaries)
they are producing media trying their best to make sure the audience will enjoy it
Give me what I want. I want what I want when I want it.
(What do people want?:
Jersey Shore, Jerry Springer, etc.: Trash)
starts elitists and turns populists
because Companies can make most money by giving people what they want
-array of all different stimuli, disorienting, constantly changing so we never pay attention over time= Post-modern
-Realism> Modernism> Post-modernism
o Media fragmentation: increase in the number of mass media and mass media outlets that has taken place in the past 2 decades.
o Media fragmentation encourages audience erosion, a decrease in the percentage of the population using any particular mass medium (a general magazine) or a specific media outlet (a specific magazine)
-Media are targeting narrower & narrower segments of mass audience/ "niche"
-Ex) cable! "niche" marketing but more efficient use of advertising by the dollar
-tech. (efficient storage/ distribution)
-existence of entrepreneurs for whom smaller profits might be worthwhile
-the willingness of advertisers to find certain audiences attractive, even if small
provisions under which a person or company may use small portions of a copyrighted work without asking permission
when use of copyright material presents the work in a way that adds interpretation to it so that some people might see it in a new light
Oligopoly (and examples)
control by a select few firms
Media may not tell people what to think, but it does tell people
Television: Disney, Fox
Cell phone: at&t, verizon
Gas stations: Mobile, Citgo
1. Four music companies control 80% of the market - Universal Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group and EMI Group
An organization's control over a media product from production through distribution to exhibition.
(Disney makes the movie, Disney distributes it on Disney Channel, ABC and Lifetime. Then DisneyHome Video sells the DVDS in the store after the ride at Disney World)
Federal Trade Commission: a federal agency whose mission is to ensure that the nation's markets function competitively; its coverage can include any mass media- print or electronic- as long as the issue involved is related to the smooth functioning of the marketplace and consumer protection in that sphere
Federal Communications Commission: a federal agency specifically mandated by Congress to govern interstate and international communication by television, radio, wire, satellite, and cable
Ascertainment: audience's interest,
Types of effect (cognitive, attitudinal,
behavioral; conversion, minor change,
reinforcement; individual, social;
o Minor change
Relative effort of audience to engage and understand.
-Book is always hotter
The more effort you make the more control you have
push is what you don's choose to be exposed to
ex: roommates t.v.
pull is what you bring into life and attention
ex:logging onto Netflix picking a movive
A model, developed by Paul Lazarsfeld and his colleagues, that states that media influence often works in two stages:
-what we believe and engage in with s influenced by other people rather than own choices
1. Media content (opinions and facts) is picked up by people who use the media frequently
2. These people, in turn, act as opinion leaders when they discuss media content with others, who are influenced at one step removed from media.
Hypodermic needle/ magic bullet
Media persuades people powerfully and directly, without any control over the way they react.
just exposure would control the receiver and affect them
Media Giants (Turow)
-business relationships that now defines America's media and popular culture.
-understanding the considerations tat guide media firms is essential to bringing about change
critics argue against media conglomeration (small number of huge firms to dictate whats most important)
critics are concerned that many media channels today have become "retread" machines over a variety of different platforms
critics argue that "personalization" of media offered through data collection by media corporations like Google may limit our exposure to other viewpoints
Top global media corporations
Information Revolutions (lecture)
-profound changes involving new means of communication that permanently affect entire societies, changes that have shaken political structures and influenced economic development, communal activity, and personal behavior."
-writing, printing, mass media, entertainment, media in the home, and the information highway.
Mass Comm Milestones (lecture)
Revolutionary traits (lecture)
the Age of Signs and Signals
The Age of Speech and Language
The Age of Writing
The Age of Printing
The Mass Communication Age
The Age of Information Revolution
Separation between those who have access to media-technology and those who do not
-diff. media based on culture
Media content used as coins of exchange in everyday interpersonal discussions
Social responsibility theory
A normative theory that substitues media industry and public responsibility for total media freedom on the one hand and for external control on the other
Media should accept and fulfill certain obligations to
The media - all mass comm, or
n Entertainment? Advertisements?
Publicly-owned airwaves and mail
delivery systems, or all generally
Copyright (incl. 1976)
A law that recognizes the rights of an individual creator (in any medium) from the time he or she has created a work, and protects a creative work for the lifetime of that author plus seventy years
-enforced to encourage creativity and inventions
Four Arguments for Elimination of TV/web
Mediation of Experience
o mediation of experience: more knowing/feeling (rational/emotion) what it is to be a parent, sister, lawyer, etc. is mediated through story in a box
o colonization (commodification) of experience: what it means to be in ____ relationship if it isn't commodified as tv may suggest (gifts at xmas, ring for engagement, etc.)
-effects on the human being
* sick, crazy, mesmerized (ex: kid watching tv)
* ingestion of artificial light (physiological argument)
* dims the mind
* becoming the images - influences our body types, hairstyles, etc.
* replacement of human images
o inherent biases - tv has POVs that influence us (ex: more is better, life can be controlled and happy, etc.) - argument/balance against this with web = more options at once
Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television - Jerry Mander (1978)
Major developments in Web history and
■ Multiple parts/inventors/organizations
- 1945 Bush proposed memex (became hypertext)
- 1947 Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain: transistor (Bell)
- 1962 Nelson coins hypertext (key to democratization)
- 1960s Corning Glass uses fiber optics
- 1969 DoD, ARPANet
- 1973, 78 Mead's Lexis, Nexis
- 1979 CompuServe - Cerf (74, 82, 92) intercomputer language
- 1983 NSF Internet
- 1989 Berners-Lee WWW; late1980s US Gov't
gives up official control of Internet
- 1993 Andreesen Mosaic-Netscape
- ... Google, Youtube, Blogspot/Wordpress...
- ..... Facebook, Twitter, Instagram...
■ Ultimately gave in to advertising
o early civilization: barkers, walls, shops
o printing: handbills, posters, newspapers
o industrial revolution: newspapers, magazines, popular culure, mass products
o ad agencies (shapes language and values)
o trademarking, packaging (distinct look, quality=name power)
o government regulations: truth in advertising (FTC)
material formatted to contain links
that allow the reader to move easily from one
section to another and from document to
Four models of government regulation
Authoritarian: Approaches to media regulation that require that the owners of mass media firms be avid supporters of the authoritarian regime, with workers who are willing to create news and entertainment materials that adhere strictly to the party line; typically adopted by dictators who want to keep themselves and the elite class that supports them in direct control over all aspects of their society
Communist:Approaches to media regulation that hold that the government should determine what the population sees, reads, hears, and experiences through media outlets, in order to convey communist beliefs in everything the media produces for public consumption
Libertarian:Approaches to media regulation that hold that individuals are capable of making sound decisions for themselves and that government should intervene only in those rare circumstances where society cannot be served by people going about their own business; the mass media do not represent such an area, since individuals and companies will create mass media materials without prodding from the government
Social Responsibility: Approaches to media regulation that agree with the libertarian belief in the importance of the individual and the marketplace of ideas, but hold that the real competition over ideas will never happen without government action to encourage companies to be socially responsible by offering a diversity of voices and ideas, and also argue that sometimes things that individuals or companies want to publish — for example, child pornography — might be harmful to a large number of people in the society
The process by which a relatively small number of people control what eventually reaches the audience is referred to as
A company that holds several mass media firms in different media industries under its corporate umbrella. process of them coming together
A patterned approach to creating content that is characterized by the use of setting, typical characters, and patterns of action
Major categories of media content.
Messages that combine information about the product with intense attempts to get the consumer to purchase it as soon as possible
Advertisements that aim mostly to create good feelings about the product or service by associating it with desirable music, personalities, or events that the creators of that product or service feel would appeal to the target audience
non-profit organization that produces, distributes and promotes public service announcements on behalf of various sponsors, including non-profit organizations, non-governmental organizations and agencies
• PSA's, tax breaks for networks
A company that specializes in the creation of ads and their placement in media that accept payment for exhibiting those ads
o 4 dimensions of ad agencies:
* business to business vs. consumer agencies
* general agencies vs. specialty agencies
* traditional vs. direct marketing
* agency networks vs. stand alone firms
o 3 basic ad agency functions
* creative persuasion
* market research
* media planning and buying
Making a particular target group of consumers feel that a brand relates to their particular interests and lifestyles
o Aligns product with values, also used to talk about environment
The media material surrounding the ad
Term used to refer to the competing messages facing Americans virtually everywhere they turn, virtually every moment of the day
-Father of PR, Father of Spin, major self-promotion, admirers and detractors, alumnus of Creel Committee, nephew of Freud, master of scientific persuasion
-Remembered for big ideas, bold (often indirect) strategies founded on keen insight into human nature and perceptions.
-Rooted his campaigns in an understanding of what motivates people to think, feel, act (rather than placing tactics first, as many PR practitioners do - if we make enough noise, maybe we'll achieve goals)
-Major impact on field of PR - boldly practiced and promoted PR as an applied social science
-Light's Golden Jubilee to celebrate 50th anniv of Edison's light bulb, Bacon industry - doc's promoting healthy breakfasts, Torches of Freedom for Lucky Cigs.
-Became proponent of 2-way symmetrical model of communications
-Lobbied for licensing of PR professions
-Considered 1st public relations "counsel". 1904 Ivy Lee/Geo Parker opened 2nd publicity office in NY. Although publicity still #1 service provided by today's PR firms, Lee stretched limits of PR well beyond publicity by championing strategic power of PR into 'public information' and counseling. Railroads/Rockefeller mining.
-Declaration of Principles: signaled new model of PR practice - "public information" - emphasis on dissemination of truthful, accurate information rather than distortions, hype, exaggerations typical of press agency at the time. His emphasis on public service embraced by many health communicators.
1-Idea that businesses should be aligned w the public interest
2-Insisting on support of top organization execs
3-Commitment to open communication with the news media
4-Importance of humanizing businesses and orgs
Media relations (p.r.)
The art or science of establishing and promoting a favorable relationship with the public through various methods and/or activities
Works by making values appear natural.
• We're taught not by logic and dialogue as
much as by images.
• Images create desire for products.
• Represent dreams, not reality.
Ad comparative spending by medium
Broadcast TV: 47.8, 42.3
Subscription TV: 28.9, 16.7
Newspapers: 43.6, 51.3
Play internet: 21.8, 6.6
Broadcast/satellite radio: 18, 19.6
Yellow pages: 15.4, 14.8
Consumer magazines: 12.9, 11.5
Business to business magazines: 11.1, 9.1
Pure-play mobile: 1.2, .41
Out of home: 8.1, 5.2
Other entertainment based ads: .96, .20
Total: 209.76, 177.7
Media lul people into passivity. People are so overwhelmed with the volume of information that they tend to withdraw from public involvement. Intellectual awareness becomes a substitute for active involvement.
-feeling like you have gotten involved without actually being involved
Industrial Revolution impact on character of
The Industrial Revolution gave birth to consumerism, a system that creates and encourages the purchase of goods and services in increasing amounts.
J.P. Sousa re:recorded music (Lessig)
"these will ruin music, we will not have a vocal chord left because of evolution"
-loose capacity to participate because of read only culture. therefore consume creativity rather than produce.
-displaced because of 21st century internal machines-read only existemce
-need to revive vocal chords (read-Write culture)
-celebrating culture for love of what doing and not money
-"song humming, kids today doing same. changing music"
is an environmental, mechanical, and semantic sound in the communication situation that interferes with the delivery of the message.
Characteristics by which people are divided into particular social categories
Factors include: age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, race, and income
A way to differentiate among people or groups by categorizing them according to their attitudes, personality types, or motivations
Types of funding (Turow;
Marketplace of ideas
the belief, asserted by John Milton in Areopagitica, that in a free- flowing media system, individuals will be able to make their own decisions about what is true and false, because media competition will allow different opinions to emerge and struggle for public approval (as in a market) and in the end, the true opinion will win out
Government restriction of speech before it is made
National security (clear and present
• Truth & advertising
Ethics vocab (Turow)
o By applying 1+ classical approaches to ethics, we can better evaluate behaviors
* Aristotle's Golden Mean: represents the average of the extreme actions between intellectual and moral virtues
* Judeo-Christian Ethic ("Golden Rule"): do to others as you'd have done to you
* Emmanuel Kant's Theory of the categorical imperative: individuals should follow ethical principles as if they could be applied in any situation
* Mill's Principle of Utility: "the greatest good for the greatest number"
* Rawl's veil of ignorance theory: in any situation, justice emerges only when all parties are treated equally
o 5 main duties of media professionals regarding ethics:
* duty to: self, audience, employer, promise holders, society
o ethical standards in mass media relate to 3 levels: personal, professional, societal. Ethical actions involve values, ideals and principles
The worldwide spread of media companies, fueled by a combination of media fragmentation, audience erosion, and the need to move materials to more outlets in order to increase revenues
The exercise of control over an area of people by a dominant power not so much through force of arms as by surrounding the weaker countries with cultural materials that reflect values and beliefs that support the interests of that dominant power
Open to multiple meanings
Software that interprets Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and displays it on a computer screen
■ Hypertext markup language (html): programming
language used to create Web pages. Tags and
A computer language system that allowed people to access a system of interlinked documents that could be accessed through the internet.
Hypertext transfer protocol (http): standard set of
rules used by Web servers and browsers for
sending and receiving text, graphics, or anything
else on a Web site. (http:// tells Web browser to
use this protocol.)
Wiki values (lecture)
wikinomics: how mass collaboration changes everything
Openness, peering, sharing, acting globally
* Interaction between populist and elitist values to make the web the best it can be
* Should all be sharable/reshapable and not delineated into corporate sections
What's the nature of competition? Role &
value of the individual (autonomy) vs
■ Business, information, entertainment,
Creative products, such as videos and music, generated by the people who visit websites such as MySpace, Heavy, and Facebook
A complex set of rules activated by search terms in search engines that come up with sites that relate to your search terms
The desire by websites and advocates to make sure that ISPCs do not charge sites for transmission
-All websites should be created and treated equal
-Internet Service Providers are not allowed to manage flow ('fast lane'/ 'slow lane') of websites
-You shouldn't be able to slow down someone's ability to reach a website due to it's content
Spectrum scarcity means that limited amount of airwaves represents harsher government regulations acceptable. It effects how broadcast is regulated because if the regulations are stricter than say in print, then the same amount, and same level of content will not be conveyed.
Orwell v. Huxley (Postman)
Orwell: feared those who would ban books
-feared those who would deprive us of information
-feared the truth would be concealed from us
-feared we would become a captive culture
-in the book 1984, people are controlled by inflicting pain
-Feared that what we hate will ruin us
Huxley: feared there would be no reason to ban a book, for there would be no one who would want to read one
-feared those who would give us so much that we would be reduced to passivity and egotism
-feared the truth would be drowned in a sea of irrelevance
-feared we would become a trivial culture, preoccupied with the equivalent of the feelies, the orgy porgy, an the centrifugal bumble puppy
-in the book brave new world, people are controlled by inflicting pleasure
-Feared that what we love will ruin us
Postmans book: Huxley was probably right
Baurlein re: participation and audience traits
We take what was once novelty (technologically) as the norm nowadays; mass adoption (Wikipedia - what didn't exist in 2000 is a towering source in civic/historical matters)
Consumer behavior is at a pace that signals a lot more than just convenience/trendiness (think: amount we text) à with advances, we forget the past and adopt new behaviors
Is the significance of digital technology good or bad? (evaluate using: how we think, what we expect, how we relate to others and where we stand in the universe - best approached by ordinary behaviors)
Reclusiveness in public spaces - digital tools encourage it
Digital Natives incl. traits (Pensky)
The first generation to grow up in a world where digital technologies and the internet were already in place.
Prensky writes about a singularity, an event that fundamentally changed things, our students in fact, so that the current educational system is ill prepared for this new generation of learner.
-the digital natives prefer images over text, they prefer games over "serious work," they function best when networked, digital natives can't pay attention (or they choose not to!), and finally digital natives have skills, with digital technologies, that they've perfected.
Traits: tech savvy, use trial and error, multitaskers, non sequential with use of info meaning go back and forth between screens
Over 10,000 hrs. video games, 200,000 emails/IMSs, 10,000 hrs talking on cell phones, 20,000 hrs watching TV, over 500,000 commercials seen [all before college] Maybe 5,000 hrs reading.
Possibly different physioneurological structure as a result of digital input, learn differently (through technology rather than traditional)
Brains adjusted/programmed to speed, interactivity and other factors in games, reading has a different neurology than technology. (comp. to postman?)
à children are developing "hypertext" minds (cognition leaps around, are parallel rather than sequential)
need interactivity: immediate responses to their actions
traits: need interactivity, lost reflection (experiential learning), critical thinking in learning (traditional ways)
have enhanced: parallel processing, graphics awareness, random access
Otnes & Jhally re: Ayers & diamond
Need to sell nonessential goods in competitive marketplace using potentialities offered by color and print photography (1920's) - in ads we see people who represent reigning social values "image" v. "reality" - what people want isn't material, but ads perceive materials to bring what people want (happiness)
Ads don't work by creating values/attitudes, but by drawing upon/rechanneling concerns of target audience and culture
"tricked" by false blandishments of advertising; problem stems from institutional structure of market society that propels definition of satisfaction through the commodity/image system
spread of image based influence - the feelings brought about by advertising is what makes us decide. Not the content. (think politics); narrative/rational response à images/emotional response
political implications: education in an image saturated society: our own experiences are of little consequence unless substantiated and validated by the world of style (there's a world of 'substance' and a world of 'style'
struggle to reconstruct existence and meaning of world of substance has to start on terrain of image system in some progressive cultural politics
open further the analysis of contemporary image system - democraticize it. It's authoraitarian and reflects only a few narrow, mostly corporate interests. Should be opened to public discourse and new and varied and dissenting voices.
Info about institutional context of production/consumption of image system should be a prerequisite for literacy in modern world - strip away anonymity and demystify images through which we conceptualize our world
Talks about diamonds - how advertising effects our lifestyle and even belief system. "More is better" "symbol of love/forever" à we overlook how we get diamonds (blood diamonds) and follow "tradition" anyways (1477 engagement ring in Europe, 1880 began diamond engagement ring industry in America)
Advertising and credits
o Voleny Palmer is credited w/ starting the first advertising agency in the US in 1840s
Advertising and image, attitude, value (Jhally)
ads before were push are now pull
we choose to pull them to us
shift from push to pull
Images: create desire for products
-represent dreams, not reality
Ideology: Association prinicples
-works by making values appear natural
-taught not by logic and dialogue but by images
Advertising thus does not work by creating values and attitudes out of nothing but by drawing upon and re-channeling concerns that the target audience (and the culture) already shares.
o Terms set up in how we create and evaluate media in society
o Populative perspective: evaluating a quality of a medium, platform, individual text, etc. your measurement for success from this perspective is giving the greater number of people what they want (it's good/successful if a lot of people buy/see/etc it)
o Elitist perspective: based on assumption that media is good in society if it gives people what they need
o Want vs. need; quantity vs. quality
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
COMM 170 final
msch-c 207 final ; quizzes
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