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Terms in this set (285)
The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method. Early forms of this include damaging an animal's brain and recording the results.
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. The goal was to reduce conscious experience to it's core elements: sensations, feelings, etc.
A method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings.
The study of how experiences are related to the physical reality of the world.
A study of psychology based on what conscious thoughts were for, rather than what they were made of.
Losing sight of the big questions and meaningful answers by breaking a problem into smaller and smaller pieces.
Principle of Totality
The idea that the study of any conscious experience must simultaneously take into account all the mental and physical aspects of the individual.
Principle of Psychological Isomorphism
The idea that there is a systematic relationship between a conscious experience and physical events occurring in the brain and nervous system.
Reported experiments of "involuntary" learning in dogs; they would salivate at a sound, if it was first associated with food.
The viewpoint that internal mental events cannot be observed, so psychologists should concern themselves with behaviour, which is objectively observable.
Created the operant chamber for an experiment which would alter the behaviours of a subject animal (a mouse) based on positive or negative reinforcement. Believed any response could be explained as the result of an environmental stimulus.
A theory aimed at treating mental disorders by investigating the conscious and the unconscious.
The large portion of our internal mental world, inaccessible to conscious awareness. This includes certain thoughts, memories, desires, fears.
A way for the conscious mind to defend itself from trauma and conflict, by forgetting said trauma.
A sub-discipline based on mental tasks such as memory, attention, categorization. Involves scientifically trying to prove models.
The idea that how we see ourselves is central to understanding human behaviour. Has mostly clinical applications, focusing on the positives of a client.
The term for how we see ourselves.
Level of Analysis
An angle from which a psychologist may approach a problem.
Psychological, Biological, Environmental
The 3 basic levels of analysis.
A perspective for determining if a subject meets the diagnostic criteria for a psychological disorder.
A perspective for identifying and controlling the environmental stimuli of a subject, and examining the stimuli.
A perspective to identify and examine the unconscious conflict and tension at the root of a subject's problem.
A perspective used to explore the thought patterns and processes involved in a subject's problem.
A perspective used to examine the short- and long-term effects of a subject's problem, particularly in the brain, as well as any other biological factors.
A perspective used to investigate the role of genetic predisposition and critical environmental influences in a subject's problem.
A perspective used to consider why the biological systems and behavioural mechanisms related to a problem exist, and their normal functions.
A perspective used to look at a subject's social context and cultural background, and their role in the subject's problem.
Sub-discipline for establishing links between physical structure and the function of the nervous system and behaviour.
A sub-discipline for the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders.
A sub-discipline for the comparison of psychological processes and behaviour across different species.
A sub-discipline that evaluates the programs and support structures within the context of community service and development.
A sub-discipline for the application of psychological principles to the study of marketing and consumer behaviour.
A sub-discipline for the diagnosis and treatment of issues not serious enough to warrant a clinical diagnosis.
A sub-discipline which observes the changes over the lifespan with regards to psychological issues such as attachment, cognitive ability, perception, and language.
A sub-discipline which develops and evaluates the practices that encourage learning in a classroom environment.
A sub-discipline for understanding human psychology as the product of our evolutionary history, and examining the adaptive value of psychological processes.
A sub-discipline examining the psychological factors affecting health-related issues, including disease processes, immune function, and the promotion of healthy behaviour.
The design and evaluation of interfaces between humans and technology.
A sub-discipline for the application of psychology to the function of a workplace or organization, typically to maximize efficiency and minimize stress.
As a sub-discipline, examining how behaviour is modified as the result of experience and the ability of environmental stimuli to control behaviour.
The stable psychological traits that identify us to ourselves and others, which influence/characterize our thinking and behaviour.
Developing, evaluating, and conducting psychological and behavioural tests, scales, and inventories.
A sub-discipline for investigating the mechanisms of drug action in the nervous system and elsewhere, and identifying the psychological consequences of drugs.
A sub-discipline involved with working with athletes to maximize their performance through the application of psychological principles.
A sub-discipline which takes into account the role of social forces and group dynamics in determining individual thought, behaviour, and perception.
A dramatic shift in views/thinking.
Evidence gathered from others or self experience.
Construct a theory, generate hypothesis, choose research method, collect data, analyze data, report the findings, revise existing theories.
A scientific tool used to measure the effect of one variable on another.
An experimental strategy involving manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of external variables on the dependent measure. Minimizes effects of participant differences, but can be costly and time consuming.
Performance improves over the course of an experiment due to the participant becoming more practiced at the task.
An experimental strategy where one group of subjects acts as the control group.
A variable other than the independent variable that haas an effect on results.
The general group we're trying to learn about.
A select group chosen to represent the population.
Choosing a sample at random from the entire population.
Assigning participants to the control/experimental group randomly.
The effect that occurs when an individual exhibits a response to a treatment that has no related therapeutic effect.
When a participant's actions in an experiment influence the results outside of the manipulations of the experimenter.
When participants do not know whether they belong to the experimental or control group, or which treatment they are receiving.
Actions made by the experimenter, intentionally or not, to promote the result they hope to achieve. Can be reduced by blinding the experimenter.
Experiments in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which group the participants belong to.
These present information about data at a glance, as a graph for example.
A type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values appear in a data set.
A type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in a data set.
A distribution with a characteristic smooth, symmetrical, bell-shaped curve containing a single peak.
The average distance of each data point from the mean. (Increases as spread increases.)
Statistics that allow us to use results from samples to make inferences about overall, underlying populations.
A statistical test that considers each data point from both groups to calculate the probability that two samples were drawn from the same population. (ie, the probability that the same results would have been found EVEN IF both groups were from the same population.)
A value expressing the probability calculated by the T-test.
The P-value required by scientists for a probability to be considered statistically significant, that two samples are from the same population.
What the results have when the difference between two groups is due to some true difference between their properties, and not simply due to random variation.
(r): tells both the strength and direction of a correlation. For example, r=1 is a perfect positive correlation, r=0 is no correlation.
The ability of a test to give the same output when the same input is entered.
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure.
Building on theories to converge at a hypothesis.
Making predictions about certain phenomena based on the testable claims of a particular theory. Uses current knowledge.
Type 1 Error
Claiming the manipulation of the independent variable had an effect when the difference was actually the result of a sampling error.
Type 2 Error
Concluding the manipulation of an independent variable had no effect when it actually did.
A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way regardless of content.
Social Desirability Bias
People answer questions in a way that makes them look good, rather than with complete honesty.
A type of learning in which the contingency between a particular signal and a later event are paired in time and/or space.
The reflex for which subjects must first be trained.
This exists if the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another.
Any stimulus or event, that occurs naturally prior to learning.
This occurs after the unconditioned stimulus, naturally prior to learning.
This is paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency.
The response which occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned.
The process in which the contingency between the CS and US is learned. Occurs as a negatively accelerating increasing function.
The loss of the CR when the CS no longer reliably predicts the US.
When a new response is generated to counteract the previous CR, because the CS has become unreliable.
The recurrence of an extinguished conditioned response, usually following a rest period.
Stimuli similar to the CS will elicit a similar response. Stimuli will elicit less of a response the more different they are from the CS.
Complimentary to stimulus generalization: restricts the range of stimuli which can elicit a response.
Predicts the presence of the US.
Predicts the absence of the US.
An exaggerated, intense, persistent fear.
A type of phobia therapy in which the patient is encouraged to confront the CS.
A type of phobia therapy in which the patient gradually works towards confronting the main CS.
A process which counteracts a challenge to homeostasis.
A stimuli with may act as a cue for a compensatory response, such as immunity to drugs in a certain location due to the body's learned adaptations.
Acquiring associations that are not immediately expressed or expressed only in appropriate contexts.
An automatic, reflexive shift of attention towards a stimulus or event caused by becoming aware of a new stimulus or change in the environment.
A decrease in response to a stimulus or event as it is repeatedly presented without any consequence.
A response to changes in stimuli that are habituated - an increase in sensitivity.
When repeated presentation of a stimulus leads to an increase in responding.
The extent to which two stimuli occur together in time and space. This is a necessary but not sufficient condition for learning.
The property of the CS to provide information about the presentation of the US. This was found to be more important than contiguity.
The learning of a contingency between behaviour and consequence.
The person who performed the cats in a puzzle box experiment - there is no "aha!" moment for animals, behaviours only get "stamped in" and "stamped out".
Law of Effect
The idea that behaviours with positive consequences are stamped in, and behaviours with negative consequences are stamped out.
The presentation of a positive reinforcer.
The presentation of a negative reinforcer.
Removal of a positive reinforcer.
Removal of a negative reinforcer.
When learning occurs without the careful guidance of a researcher.
A form of learning in which successive approximations lead to a final complex behaviour. Skinner taught pigeons to play ping pong with this: the criteria for a reward becomes stricter over time.
Signals when a contingency between response and reinforcement is "on".
Signals when a contingency between response and reinforcement is not valid.
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, resulting in slower extinction than if the behavior had been reinforced continually.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement follows after a fixed number of responses. Eg. __-5, reinforcement occurs after 5 responses. Graph is stepped.
Variable Ratio Schedule
Reinforcement follows after a variable number of responses have been completed. Eg. __-5, reinforcement occurs after an average of 5 responses. Graph is steady, large slope.
Fixed Interval Schedule
Reinforcement occurs for the first correct response after a fixed interval of time. Eg. __-5min, reinforcement occurs for the first response after 5 min. Graph is scalloped.
Variable Interval Schedule
Reinforcement follows the first correct response to occur after a variable interval of time has passed. Graph is steady, small slope.
As the number of responses required increases, the post-reinforcement pause tends to get longer.
The cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, reason well, remember important information, and cope with the demands of daily living.
Our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects.
A problem designed to test ability to "think outside the box".
Arch of Knowledge
A cycle involving creating theories and adapting those theories through experimentation.
He wanted to formally quantify intelligence, and recorded how quickly subjects respond to sensory motor tasks by their reaction time. The validity of this is questionable.
The effect that raw IQ scores have been on the rise since 1932.
He observed that those who performed well on classical intelligence tests performed well on all types of tasks. Said this all stemmed from a central intelligence - G.
From Gardner, the theory that there are 8 different types of intelligence. This opened the possibility that everyone might excel in some form of intelligence. Contradicted by proof for G.
An intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. Results are generated as IQ scores.
There is a high correlation between genetics and intelligence. This type of twins exhibit the highest correlation.
A mental framework for interpreting the world around us (eg. frown = unhappy).
He argued for the 4 stages of development. Children are active learners - they manipulate and explore environments to incorporate new info into what they know.
The incorporation of new information into existing schemas. Allows active learning.
Modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information. Allows active learning.
The first stage of development. 0-2 years.
Kids have trouble with this in the sensorimotor stage. The realization that objects continue to exist when no longer visible.
The stage of development from 2-7 years.
Kids have trouble with this during preoperational stage. This is the difficulty understanding the world from another's perspective.
Kids have trouble with this during preoperational stage. The ability to logically order a series of objects.
Kids have trouble with this during preoperational stage. Do you have a brother? Does your brother have a sister?
Kids have trouble with this during preoperational stage. Perceive there to be less of something if it is compressed, as an example.
The stage of development from 7-12 years. No abstraction abilities.
The stage of development after 12 years. They can do everything which makes up the normal range of cognitive abilities.
Our tendency to seek out information which supports our hypothesis.
Our tendency to make decisions based of the information most quickly available to us (usually rapidly).
Our tendency to assume what we are seeing is representative of the larger category we have in our mind.
Regular, Arbitrary, Productive
The three factors required for something to be considered language.
The idea that language is used to form thoughts, so it influences our thoughts and the way we perceive and experience the world. Supported by a Brazilian tribe with three number words, countered by another tribe with only one word for older male.
The smallest unit of sound that contains information.
The smallest unit of language. These must usually be combined to create meaning.
The rules that govern how sentences are put together.
The meaning of syntactic words when they are put together (ie, something may have perfect grammar but make no sense).
The age where a baby can make cooing sounds.
The age where a child turns its head towards noises.
The age when a child imitates sounds.
The age when a child starts babbling.
The age when a child can use 50-250 words, and 2 word phrases.
The age when a child's vocabulary is over 850 words.
Intentional vocalization that lacks specific meaning.
Universal Phoneme Sensitivity
The ability of infants to discriminate between any sounds they are tested on, regardless of native language.
Something infants do during a test for phoneme sensitivity, if they recognize the phoneme as different.
Social Learning Theory
The theory that children learn language through a combination of imitation and operant conditioning. Support: a child not exposed to much language never develops the skill. Counter: language development is too rapid to be only from imitation and reinforcement.
Applying a language rule too broadly in meaning/syntax. Eg. "doggie" is pet dog so all pets are "doggie".
Applying a language rule to a specific object only. Eg. "doggie" is pet dog so no other dogs are "doggie".
Innate Mechanism Theory
Language development theory for "nature". Eg, some deaf children develop their own syntactically correct sign language - and the syntax doesn't always correspond to their parent's language rules.
Language Acquisition Device
An innate mechanism, present only in humans, that helps language develop rapidly according to universal rules.
In this, the duration corresponds to distance and the angle to the direction. This may be repeated over 100 times.
The process of losing the ability to distinguish between contrasts in sounds not used in your native language.
The term for when people talk to babies: they tend to speak in a higher pitch and exaggerate changes in pitch and use of rhythm.
A small area in the left frontal lobe which when damaged leads to difficulty in the production of fluent speech. Damage to Wernicke's area causes difficulty understanding.
Spoken words used to express languages.
The understanding of more complex words and expressions by children that they are not yet able to use.
The use of short phrases that contain only crucial information to convey meaning.
Syntactic errors in using a grammatical rule too broadly.
The Illusion of the Expert
The feeling that something is easy, because you are good at it.
The function of categorization that allows one to treat objects that appear different as belonging together.
The function of categorization that allows one to know what is happening in a given situation.
The function of categorization that allows us to compared current experiences to past ones in order to know what is going to happen.
The function of categorization that allows certain words to convey whole categories, in speech.
The average/best member of a category, formed through experience.
The internal prototype is expected to be ______ over time: it isn't.
Each past instance of category membership. A novel item must be sufficiently similar to one of these to be categorized as like.
Doctors were asked to identify skin disorders, and it was found that they were 20% more accurate if exposed to a similar example earlier. They were affected by a single example, despite having seen 100's of cases over time. This supports ________ ______.
Children as young as this age can understand basic categories, and can understand something of the innate properties of a given category.
This exists in non-human animals, while language does not.
Involuntary "capture" type of attention. Fast and efficient.
Conscious type of attention. Slow and effortful.
The mind picking one object/train of thought out of several simultaneous possibilities - the withdrawal from some things in order to effectively deal with others.
A piece of information is considered _______ when it appears to pop out at you. For example, an EMC vehicle siren.
The model of attention in which your attention is focused on only one area at a time, and can be taken over by unconscious processes.
When objects are within this area, one has faster reaction time and greater accuracy.
Subjects respond more quickly when the object is first flashed in the same box - otherwise, the attentional spotlight is focused elsewhere. This still works even when you haven't had the time to visually process the flash.
The model of attention (mainly for sound) in which everything but the focus is ignored, or fades into the background.
He came up with the single filter model of attention.
Single Filter Model
Only the information that passes through the physical filter is processed. Everything else is ignored.
Shadowing Paradigm, Cocktail Party Effect
The single filter model can explain the ___ ___, but not the ___ ___ ___.
Dichotic Listening Paradigm
Different things are played in each ear of a subject, and when asked to focus on one they cannot remember the message in the other.
The person who came up with the dual filter model for attention. Noted that in the dichotic listening paradigm there are circumstances in which subjects remember the unattended information.
Dual Filter Model
All information must pass through two filters: one physical, one semantic.
A task which produces an effect almost impossible to avoid. Increasing congruent samples increases the effect of this task involving colours and their names.
Proportion Congruent Manipulation
Changing the ratio of congruent to incongruent trials. This allows automatic and controlled approaches to be measured, like in the Stroop Task.
The number of items to search through.
Set Size Effect
The effect in which difficulty increases as set size increases.
When the object of a visual search is easily found, regardless of set size. This effect is easily induced by colour.
This makes a visual search very difficult, when one is looking for multiple similarities simultaneously.
This comes from knowledge about the world, and helps make search tasks easier in real life.
The memory phase in which the subject learns a list of words/pictures/items.
The memory phrase in which subjects are tested on what they learned during the encoding phase.
A memory task in which the subject is asked to freely generate as many items as they remember.
A memory task in which the subject is shown several items and asked to judge if they had been presented previously.
The graph of memory recall: recall is highest immediately following learning.
The memory model which assumes memory is composed of short- and long-term systems.
The person who memorized nonsense words in order to operationally define memory.
This person found that short term memory contains 7+/-2 items. Past this, short term memory becomes strained. The items also fade if rehearsal stops.
A method involving grouping in order to contain more in short-term memory.
Serial Position Curve
A graph of the recall of a word against the position of the word in a list.
The effect for how memory is good for items encoded early in a list. Can be effected by the speed at which someone says the list.
The effect for how memory is good for items encoded later in a list. Can be diminished by distracting the subject.
Levels of Processing Model
The model of memory in which memory performance depends on the level at which things are encoded. The more we try to organize and understand the material, the better we remember it.
The level of processing for physical characteristics, little effort, and poor memory performance.
The level of processing for semantic characteristics, significant effort, and high memory performance.
The ease with which an experience is processed: some experiences are easier than others.
The judgement tying together causes with effects, in memory.
Correspondent Inference Theory
The theory in which you actively analyze behaviour to make inferences based on three different variables: degree of choice, expectation, and intended consequences.
Degree of Choice
Did the person pick their position, or was it assigned?
Uncommon behaviour gives us more information than common.
Does the person have hidden goals guiding their behaviour?
The theory for forming impressions in which one determines if behaviour is dispositional or situational, based on consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus.
Does the individual usually behave this way in this situation?
Does the individual behave differently in different situations?
Do others behave similarly in this situation?
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overvalue dispositional factors for the observed behaviours of others and undervaluing situational factors.
Actor Observer Effect
The tendency to overvalue the situational factors of your own behaviour.
The tendency to perceive yourself favourably.
Above Average Effect
One identifies dispositional factors for ones successes, and situational factors for failures.
The effect in which one tends to be more positive towards things that are familiar.
You are more likely to become attracted to those you live and work closely with. There are two types: physical and functional.
Seeing someone with a higher frequency makes you view them as more positive. The relationship factor is why famous people appear more attractive.
The relationship factor in which what is beautiful is seen as good and intelligent.
Clifford and Hatfield Study
The study that found ugly children are seen as less intelligent even if given the same description.
The study which lowered women's self esteem. The study found that an outsider is perceived as more attractive if they are kind to the woman in that state.
Liking those who Like Us
The relationship factor for which having someone like you when your self esteem is lowered makes a lasting impression. Even more so if they go from negative to positive.
Another individual performing the same task.
The increased performance that occurs in the presence of others or an audience.
The person who reconciled the contradictory data on the influence of others. The presence of others increases arousal to improve performance on simple tasks, and decrease performance on complex tasks.
Performed the bobo doll and learned aggression experiments. Children performed aggressively without explicit reinforcement.
The role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection.
The role of others in providing information about and ambiguous situation. Even with anonymity, subjects will still go along with the rest of a group.
Groups make riskier decisions than the average individual.
Group decision making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members. This can move a group to the risky OR cautious extreme.
A group decision making environment that occurs when group cohesiveness becomes so strong it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative opinions.
What do the following attempt to do? Be impartial, critical evaluation, subdivide the group, provide people with a second chance to express opinions.
When each individual in a group sees nobody responding in a given situation, they conclude that it's not an emergency.
Diffusion of Responsibility
In deciding whether we have to act, we determine that someone else in the group is more qualified. The more people there are, the higher the effect.
Diffusion of responsibility special case, where individuals seem to be less motivated when working in a group than when working alone.
The person who developed the very scary obedience shock experiment.
The person who did the nurse obedience experiment.
A discrepancy between attitude and behaviour, which leads to the subject changing their attitude.
The creator of the Stanford Prison experiment.
In a group situation, the loss of a sense of personal responsibility and restraint.
Well reasoned, factual, two-sided arguments. Effective for intelligent audiences.
Well presented, easy to understand messages. Effective for unintelligent audiences.
Foot in the Door
A persuasion strategy using a gradual escalation of demands.
Door in the Face
A persuasion strategy using an initial high demand, to make the following demands seem less unusual.
An escalation of the terms of an agreement, after someone had already agreed. Uses cognitive dissonance.
A type of memory which appears very vivid (but is not necessarily accurate).
Cocktail Party Effect
Despite competing background noises, a listener can focus on a single channel and still pick out relevant salient information from the background.
Attention is guided by salient stimuli or environmental changes; automatic.
Attention is guided by conscious directed in order to fulfill a goal or meet memory expectations; controlled.
The direction of attention is made clear through eye movements.
Direction of attention not guided by eye movements but can be measured by spatial cuing where cues lead to faster target detection in periods too short for eye movement.
These cues allow attention to be physically and automatically oriented.
The cues allow attention to be consciously directed by interpretation of cue information.
A buffer for the storage of information through verbal rehearsal.
A buffer that represents and manipulates visual information.
This uses other buffers and long term memory to remember and hold online past episodes.
The person who came up with the experiment in which cyclists and children fishing perform better in a group.
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