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Lecture 2 Anatomy
Terms in this set (48)
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Who said that all matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms
What is an element?
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
What are atoms composed of?
Subatomic particles- protons, neutrons, electrons
Charge of proton and what does it determine?
positive charge; determines element
Charge of neutron and what does it determine?
No charge; determines isotope
Charge of electrons and what does it determine?
Negative charge; the outer shell determines chemical behavior
Where are protons and neutrons located?
In the nucleus
Where are electrons located?
In the orbitals
The number of protons equals
the number of electrons
difference from atomic and mass number
atomic #- number of protons in nucleus
Mass#- protons + neutrons
difference from atoms and elements
elements- matter that can't be broken down into a simpler compound. made up of an atom
Atoms- composed of subatomic particles (protons neutrons electrons)
What are the 4 elements in the body?
oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen
What is the Bohr model?
depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus
What is the octet rule?
Inner valence - 2 electrons
all other- 8
What are isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons (different atomic masses)
What are radioisotopes?
high levels of nuclear energy. they emit this energy in form of nuclear radiation and decay over time. They are physically unstable.
Stable isotopes do not go through what?
What is the release of subatomic particles?
Cancer radiation therapy is an example of what?
What are the two ways to combine matter?
mixtures and chemical bonds
What are mixtures?
Different atoms combined retain their chemical properties and can be physically separated.
What are chemical bonds?
Different atoms combined have
new chemical properties and the resulting
molecules can only be separated
What are the three types of mixtures?
solutions, colloids, suspensions
What are the types of chemical bonds?
ionic, covalent, hydrogen
What is a suspension?
mixture generally consisting of a liquid and solid. Large, unevenly distributed particles. settles out when left undisturbed
What are colloids?
two or more components. small, evenly distributed particles. will not settle out
What are solutions?
two or more components extremely small, evenly distributed particles. does not settle out.. homogenous mixture.. components are atoms, molecules, or ions
Difference between solute and solvent?
Solute gets dissolved, solvent does the dissolving
how does the valence shell determine chemical reactivity?
the number of electrons in outer most shell tell what type of bond it has
How can matter be combined chemically?
when atoms are combined by chemical bonds
When are compounds formed?
When two or more elements react together
What is an ionic bond?
- results when electrons transferred between metal and nonmetal .. METALS WILL ONLY BOND W A NONMETAL
What is a covalent bond?
sharing electrons between two or more nonmetals or a nonmetal and hydrogen.
What is a hydrogen bond?
Electrons are neither transferred nor shared. they are attractions between two polar molecules. ex. H2O
What are Van der Waals forces?
weak attraction between two non polar molecules
What are polar covalent bonds?
Unequal sharing of electrons.
What are non-polar covalent bonds?
electrons are shared equally between atoms
Examples of a non polar covalent bond
What are the strongest chemical bonds?
What are ions?
Charged particles. They have unequal number of protons & electrons
What are electrolytes?
Substances that ionize in water (can conduct electricity)
Anions & cations are separable.. disperse through solvent)
What is an anion?
negatively charged ions. more electrons than protons due to gaining one or more electrons.
What is a cation?
positively charged ions. more protons than electrons because had to lose one or more electrons. (<4 electrons, give up)
Atoms with less than 4 valence electrons
give them up
Atom with less than 3 valence electrons and greater than 8
What is the duet rule?
The atom is most stable when the valence electron shell holds 2 electrons
Hydrogen bonds give water the characteristics-
solvency, cohesion, adhesion, chemical reactivity, thermal stability
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