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Lecture 3 Anatomy
Terms in this set (80)
build, rearrange, tear apart compounds
Move cilia, flex a muscle
What does energy allow the cells to do?
How much energy is in the universe?
What is the original source of energy?
What is energy governed by?
Law of Thermodynamics
What is energy?
The ability/capacity to do work
What is kinetic energy?
energy of motion
What is mechanical energy?
the sum of kinetic and potential energy, a form of kinetic energy
What is potential energy?
______ energy is a form of potential energy stored within the covalent bonds of molecules.
Potential energy is measured as?
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
Changing energy forms results in a loss of some of the energy
What kind of system does entropy increase in?
a closed system
What is entropy?
measure of disorder
How can energy be transferred?
in one direction from an ordered state to a disordered state
An increase in entropy results in a ___ in organization
A decrease in entropy causes an ___ in organization
What is the natural state of the universe?
To get everything organized, what is required?
___ requires energy (ATP input)
___ releases energy (ATP output)
What is a chemical reaction?
A process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substance to another.
What 2 things must happen for a chemical reaction to occur?
1. reactants must come into physical contact with one another
2. reactants must overcome the repulsive forces of their electrons
Energy is stored in what type of bonds?
What are catalysts?
they make sure the reactions happen in a timely fashion with a minimal amount of energy put in the system.1
What are the two types of reactions based on energy?
Endergonic and Exergonic
the products contain more energy than the reactants. Energy is required for reaction to happen. ex. photosynthesis
reactions in which the products contain less energy than the reactants. they spontaneously occur. (releases energy) ex. cellular respiration, breakdown of glucose
What is Adenonsine Triphosphate (ATP)
The cell's energy currency. Nearly all energy in a cell is stored here. It can also synthesize other molecules or move muscles
What type of reaction is anabolism?
What type of reaction is catabolism?
Example of Reaction Sequence Decomposition
AB --> A + B
Example of Reaction sequence Synthesis
A + B --> B
Example of reaction sequence Exchange
AB + CD --> AC + BD
Example of reaction sequence Reversible
A B -->. A + B
Why are exergonic reactions spontaneous?
because of activation energy
What are enzymes?
Proteins that speed up chemical reactions (catalysts) They decrease the amount of time and energy necessary for a reaction to occur
Enzymes convert ____ into ____
a biochemically active compound formed by the combination of an enzyme with a coenzyme.
Organic Molecules that are necessary for the functioning of an enzyme.
protein portion of an enzyme
The speed of a reaction relies on the factors of
substrate concentration, pH, temperature
Properties of Enzymes
- required in small amounts
- not altered permanently by the reaction
- do not change thermodynamics of reaction
- can only accelerate at the rate at which a favorable reaction proceeds
- allow reactions to happen more quickly w less energy
What are cofactors for enzymes?
vitamins (typically metals)
What are active sites?
points on enzymes where the substrate interacts with the enzyme and catalysis occurs
What are substrates?
the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
What is the induced fit model?
Binding of substrates to enzyme change the enzyme's structure (because structure of protein determines its function)
What is the state of the molecule in the induced fit model?
Transition state- molecule is twisted by the enzyme into nearly a new molecule
What is the binding site
the enzyme physically attaches itself to the substrate
What is the active site?
The enzyme will cause a specific part of the substrate to change
Increasing concentration of substrate will ___ a reaction, while an increased product will ____ reaction
Increasing concentration of enzyme will make the enzyme activity
to go up a point
actions of enzymes
- physically attaches itself to substrate (binding site)
- will cause specific part of substrate to change
- used to join things together and split molecules apart
- substrate complex
What is an inhibitor?
A molecule that attaches itself to an enzyme and interferes with that enzyme's ability to work.
What happens In a competitive inhibition?
another molecule blocks the active site
What happens in a non-competitive inhibition?
Another molecule changes the shape of the enzyme
What happens in a negative feedback inhibition?
The output of the system acts to oppose changes to the input of the system
What do non-competitive (allosteric) inhibitors do?
Bind to the enzyme in a region other than the active site, change the shape of the active site to prevent substrates from binding
What happens in hydrogen bonds?
The differences in electronegativity creates attraction. . Gives water certain properties such as allowing them to be surrounded by molecules.
molecules stick togeth r
Molecules cling to polar surfaces (hydrophilic) and repels water (hydrophobic)
Hydrogen makes water a what?
A stable liquid by having high heat capacity.
Water is a ___ solvent
What is less dense than liquid?
What solutes do water dissolve?
What is thermal stability?
takes more energy than what youd assume otherwise to changer the state of water into something else
What is needed to convert solid to liquid to gas?
What is water?
The universal solvent
proton donors. They release hydrogen ions into solution (H+) the concentration of H+ in the solution determines the acidity
proton acceptors. Release hydroxyl ions into solution (OH-) the concentration of OH- determines alkalinity
What does the pH describe?
the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (concentration of hydrogen ions)
The more hydrogen ions you have, the ___ the number is on pH scale
What is a pH of 1?
pH of 13?
very basic. ex. bleach
What are buffers?
Molecules that prevent rapid shifts in pH
Buffers release hydrogen into solution when pH ___, and binds hydrogen out of solution when pH ___
What is the Law of mass action?
Rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of reacting substances
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